Report

Upskilling and Reskilling in Europe – A potential of 128 million adults (46.1% of the adult population)

As 2020 approaches, and the EU is still far from attaining its benchmark of 15% adult participation in learning, our societies face multiple challenges: technological changes, including digitalisation and its consequences for the future of work; ageing societies; the need for the greening of the economy; and social inclusion. Europe must improve and maintain high-level skills and competences to remain competitive and innovative; skills are therefore essential, not only to access and progress in the labour market but also to achieve one’s full potential and play an active role in society.

The benefits of investing in the upskilling and reskilling of adults have long been acknowledged in the literature. Cedefop analysis demonstrates how adults with low cognitive skills and/or low education are a vulnerable segment of the population, characterised by lower earnings and employment rates, lower quality of health, wellbeing and life satisfaction, lower civic and social engagement, and higher probability of involvement in criminal activities. Empowering low-skilled adults by promoting their upskilling and/or reskilling is associated with large social and economic incentives. According to the estimates, upskilling the EU-28 adult population (upskilling scenario: a faster increase on skill levels in the EU-28 Member States compared to the current trend) would lead to an average yearly gain of EUR 200 billion in the 10-year period between 2015 and 2025. Lack of exhaustive data prevents determining a comprehensive figure for the cost of low skills. These estimates, while alarming, should be regarded as underestimating the real economic and social costs of low skills in Europe and call for immediate action.

However, the low-skilled adult population is heterogeneous and includes adults with different needs and characteristics. For policy-makers to design and implement tailored policies, there is a need to develop a comprehensive and robust evidence base in order to understand better the magnitude of the low-skilled adult population and which groups of adults are more at risk of being low-skilled.

To date, lack of exhaustive data has meant that analysis of ‘low-skilled’ status has been rather narrow and primarily conducted on the basis of either the level of educational attainment of the population or as people working in low-skilled jobs. However, low-skilled status is a multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon which goes beyond educational attainment. A comprehensive approach to understanding low skills should consider both the determinants and effects of low skills; in doing this, it should also include a wider typology of people with low skills, such as those with obsolete skills and mismatched workers.

The aim of the reference report is to understand better the magnitude of the low-skilled adult population in the EU-28 Members States, Iceland and Norway (hereafter EU-28+). It also seeks to identify which groups of adults are most at risk of being low-skilled according to a wider definition that goes beyond educational attainment to digital skills, cognitive skills (literacy and numeracy) and the effects of skill loss and obsolescence.
For the purpose of this research, adults (aged 25 to 64) have been investigated according to these skill domains:
(a) educational attainment;
(b) computer and digital skills;
(c) cognitive skills (numeracy and literacy);
(d) adults with medium or high education but working in elementary occupations as a proxy for skills obsolescence/skill loss.

LOW-SKILLED ADULTS IN THE EU- 28+: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Data show that EU-28+ countries present significant differences in the share of adults with low skills in all dimensions considered. In particular:
(a) according to Eurostat-LFS 2016 data, the share of adults with low levels of education (ISCED 0-2 and 3c short) varies from over 50% for Malta and Portugal to less than 10% in some eastern Europe countries (Czechia, Lithuania);
(b) in countries such as Bulgaria, Italy and Romania, one in four adults (25%) declared in 2015 they had never used the computer, while this share drops to less than 5% in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (CSIS-2015);
(c) significant differences among countries are also found in the use of the internet and digital skills. According to CSIS-2015 data, in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Poland and Romania, 60% or more of adults have insufficient digital skills; they either have not used the internet in the three months prior to the interview or, if they have used it, they have below basic digital skills in activities such as information, communication, content creation and problem-solving;
(d) among the countries investigated by the PIAAC survey (2012;2015), the share of adults with low cognitive skills (literacy and numeracy) is particularly high (over 36%) in Greece, Spain and Italy, while it is much lower (below 20%) in the Scandinavian countries, as well as in Czechia, Estonia, the Netherlands and Slovakia.
Overall, the incidence of low skills across the EU-28+ shows that Greece, Spain, France, Italy and Malta present higher than average shares of low-skilled adults in almost all the skills concepts investigated (for which data are available for the country). In contrast, the Netherlands, Austria and Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) perform better than average in terms of low skills in all dimensions.

ESTIMATION OF THE ADULT POPULATION WITH POTENTIAL FOR UPSKILLING AND RESKILLING IN THE EU-28+

As there is no single European dataset encompassing information on all skill domains considered in this study, estimation of the magnitude of the adult population with potential for upskilling and reskilling has been carried out using a four- step residual approach. To reduce overlapping of relevant information, four sets of low-skilled adults have been estimated and summed up to arrive at a single value:

(a) adults with low education ;
(b) adults with medium-high education working in elementary occupations;
(c) adults with low digital skills (8), among those which have medium-high education and are not employed in a manual job;
(d) adults with low cognitive skills (low literacy and/ or low numeracy), among those which have medium-high education, who are not working in an elementary occupation and having already used computer.

According to these estimates, in the EU-28+, there are 128 million adults (46.1% of the adult population of this area) with potential for upskilling and reskilling, since they present either low education, low digital skills, low cognitive skills or are medium- to high-educated at risk of skill loss and obsolescence, because they work in elementary occupations.
These estimates depict an alarming picture and hint at a much larger pool of talent and untapped potential than the 60 million low-educated adults usually referred as low-skilled adults in the EU-28.
There are considerable differences among countries. Very high shares of adults with potential for upskilling and reskilling (around 70%) are observed in Malta and Portugal. Estimates are also quite alarming for Greece, Spain, Italy and Romania, all of which report values over 50%. Conversely, the lowest shares can be observed in Czechia and Finland (28% and 27% respectively) but also in Estonia, Norway, Slovakia and Sweden (between 31 and 33%).

Chosen excerpts by Job Market Monitor. Read the whole story @ Empowering adults through upskilling and reskilling pathways | Cedefop

Related posts

Upskilling in US – Policies that combine investments in English language and digital literacy are vital

English is essential – especially for essential workers The Covid-19 pandemic has vividly illustrated the centrality of frontline workers to the everyday functioning of American life. Many frontline workers are immigrants and/or English language learners – not unlike the US workforce overall, in which more than one in 10 workers has limited English skills. The … Continue reading

The College of the Future in UK – Upskilling people, backing business, driving innovation and addressing skills gaps

What do we want and need from our colleges from 2030 onwards, and how do we get there? These were the simple, yet fundamental questions the Commission set out to answer when it began work in Spring 2019. As the Commission culminates, this report is a rallying cry for radical and decisive action – enabling … Continue reading

Reskilling – Glenn Youngkin on Virginia Ready Initiative

Youngkin, chair of the Virginia Ready Initiative, talks about easing unemployment and strengthening Virginia’s economy by connecting people with training, financial support, and job opportunities. About 80 percent of the newly unemployed folks do not have a college degree. They work in sectors that are the most economically exposed. And they are disproportionately racial and … Continue reading

Skills in Australia – For a business-led upskilling agenda

Where next for skills? COVID-19 has triggered unprecedented change in the workforce. How can business-led upskilling drive productivity and growth in the workforce. What can businesses do to give employees the right skills for the future of work? To enable a Business-led upskilling effort government need to; Work with business to deliver more responsive upskilling … Continue reading

Reskilling and Upskilling – Guidelines on Rapid Assessment in response to the COVID-19 crisis

Skills development has an important role to play in the immediate effort to lessen the impact of COVID-19 while the pandemic is active, in building the resilience of workers and firms, and in preparing for recovery. Time is of the essence in this response, to help speed recovery from recession, to get people back to … Continue reading

Reskilling for Industry – Leaders are unprepared

The future of work will require two types of changes across the workforce: upskilling, in which staff gain new skills to help in their current roles, and reskilling, in which staff need the capabilities to take on different or entirely new roles. Our research suggests that the reskilling challenge will be particularly acute in operationally … Continue reading

COVID, Reskilling and Upskilling – 42% of companies stepped up their investment while 42% of employees have pursued training on their own after the coronavirus outbreak

Employee reskilling and upskilling training is in the spotlight. Learn how and why companies reskill and upskill their workforce and what employees think. In late 2019, the World Economic Forum issued an alert. Lack of skills was keeping CEOs awake at night. The only way to bridge the skills gap is through upskilling or reskilling … Continue reading

Recovery – Upskilling and reskilling remote workers

Embracing remote working poses serious early-stage challenges for organizations, across the operating-model dimensions of people, structure, process, and technology and leaders have an essential role to play in developing solutions to tackle these challenges in the short term (Exhibit 1). Our recent findings show that although 87 percent of executives said they were experiencing skill gaps … Continue reading

COVID, Low-Wage Earners and Upskilling – We want front line workers a chance to climb the occupational ladder

After World War Two, America expressed its gratitude to returning veterans by supporting their education. We subsequently renewed and made permanent these well earned benefits for veterans. We should do the same today for the people who are on the front line: grocery workers, food delivery workers, restaurant workers, building cleaners, hospital orderlies, EMTs, and … Continue reading

COVID and Reskilling – An opportunity ?

Containment measures imposed to stop the spread of COVID-19 have compelled businesses to lay off or significantly reduce the working hours of many workers. This is an opportunity to reskill workers so they are in a better position to tackle the new business, employment, and technological realities that will be more mainstream once the crisis is … Continue reading

Upskilling and Reskilling Needs in Europe – 128 million adults or 46.1% of the adult population of this area

This study is the first volume of Cedefop research on empowering adults through upskilling and reskilling pathways. It estimates the magnitude of the low-skilled adult population according to a broader conceptualisation which goes beyond educational attainment levels, and considers digital skills, literacy and numeracy, as well as skill loss and skill obsolescence. The study also … Continue reading

Upskilling – 366,000 people in 197 countries surveyed

In one of the largest global surveys of labor trends and work preferences, BCG and online recruiting company the Network surveyed 366,000 people in 197 countries. The results revealed that most people are prepared to retrain for a new position.   If people feel that their livelihoods are affected by global megatrends, it follows that … Continue reading

Reskilling and Upskilling in UK – National Retraining Partnership and National Retraining Scheme

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is changing the world of work at rapid pace and driving up the level of skills required. But this picture is complicated further by declining levels of adult participation in learning precisely at the time it needs to be going up. The UK skills situation is made more challenging by a … Continue reading

Reskilling – CEOs are now focussed on reskilling and upskilling their existing workforce says PWC’s 22nd CEO Survey

Automation, primarily in the form of robotics and artificial intelligence, brings with it the promise of improved productivity and higher profits — but at what cost to employment and, by extension, to society? What responsibility do corporations have to reskill employees who otherwise would be displaced by technology? And what value does reskilling offer an … Continue reading

The Working Learner Index – Workers deeply value employers’ commitments to support up-skilling

In the Working Learner Index, Bright Horizons®, publisher of the Modern Family Index, undertook an unprecedented survey of more than 30,000 workers who are already learning on the job. The ndings provide a window into the lives, aspirations, and goals of a highly engaged subset of employees who are looking for credentials with a longer … Continue reading

Upskilling in Asia Pacific – By prioritising external talent over upskilling, many are missing out on potential benefits

Learning and development is seen as vital, but its quality must improve Learning and development (L&D) is an essential part of any job, with 70% of surveyed employees based in APAC seeing opportunities for L&D as important when considering a new job role. L&D can offer an array of benefits to employees and teams – … Continue reading

Reskilling – Who is responsible?

From switchboard operator to film projectionist, three industrial revolutions down and we’ve already seen many jobs wiped from the face of the Earth. Emerging technology is rapidly dispensing P45s, pink slips or termination letters to the next round of workers. More than half the global labour force will need to start reskilling and reinventing how … Continue reading

Reskilling and The Future of Work in US – $24,800 per displaced worker, with $4.7 billion from the private sector to reskill 25% of all workers in disrupted jobs

As the Fourth Industrial Revolution impacts skills, tasks and jobs, there is growing concern that both job displacement and talent shortages will impact business dynamism and societal cohesion. A proactive and strategic effort is needed on the part of all relevant stakeholders to manage reskilling and upskilling to mitigate against both job losses and talent … Continue reading

Skills Gap – 3 Approaches for funding reskilling and upskilling

The skills gap is widening as the battle for talent intensifies It is becoming harder and harder to find talent with key skills, while redundancies and severance expenses are mounting. Investment in internal training can help tackle these issues, but companies often do not prioritise such initiatives owing to cost, time, the unclear return on … Continue reading

Future of Work – The costs of reskilling and upskilling for occupational transitions

This work contributes to the “Jobs and Skills” module of the Going Digital horizontal project and to the Skills Outlook 2019 on Skills and Digitalisation. It results from the cooperation between the Directorate for Education and Skills (EDU) and the Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI). It proposes an experimental methodology and first time … Continue reading

Low Skills in Europe – The Upskilling pathways

In 2017, 15.7% of low-qualified young Europeans aged 15 to 29 were not in education, employment or training (NEET), compared to 9.6% of their better educated peers. In the same year, the unemployment rate of low-qualified adults of working age (25 to 64) stood at 13.9% in the EU-28 while that of their highly qualified … Continue reading

Upskilling for the Future – How SAP does it

SAP (a global software company based in Walldorf, Germany) digital-business-services (DBS) division, one of the main divisions in the company, with around 20,000 employees, began implementing a comprehensive workforce skills upgrade in 2017, to support shifts in its product portfolio toward more digital innovation and cloud products. The upgrade is a multiyear “learning strategy,” which … Continue reading

Future of Work and the Skills Gap – A net positive outlook for jobs, while no less than 54% of all employees will require significant re- and upskilling by 2022,

As technological breakthroughs rapidly shift the frontier between the work tasks performed by humans and those performed by machines and algorithms, global labour markets are undergoing major transformations. These transformations, if managed wisely, could lead to a new age of good work, good jobs and improved quality of life for all, but if managed poorly, … Continue reading

Canada – Reskilling and upskilling for the changing nature of work

With federal budget consultations underway, Colleges and Institutes Canada (CICan) has issued six recommendations aimed at supporting inclusive economic growth and competitiveness by investing in skills and innovation. This is critical to help Canadians prepare for the future of work and to stay competitive in a rapidly changing labour market. These recommendations were shared as … Continue reading

Skills in the Construction Industry – Upskilling defines the future

By Lucy Wyndham –  Upskilling Defines the Future of Construction Industry Despite working hard to become certified in your specific industry, the half-life of learned skills is now about five years, which means the skills you learned while attaining a degree or industry qualification could well already be out-of-date. As we round the corner full speed into the … Continue reading

Unskilled Immigrants in US – Upskilling an untapped resource

In communities across the country, many employers are having trouble finding enough skilled workers, especially to fill middle-skilled positions that require some postsecondary training but not a four-year college degree. They may be overlooking an untapped resource. Immigrants in those communities could potentially meet these labor force needs, but many are in lower-skilled jobs with limited … Continue reading

The Future of Work – Job Transition Pathway Optimization Model for reskilling and upskilling

As the types of skills needed in the labour market change rapidly, individual workers will have to engage in life-long learning if they are to achieve fulfilling and rewarding careers. For companies, reskilling and upskilling strategies will be critical if they are to find the talent they need and to contribute to socially responsible approaches … Continue reading

The Future of Work – Retraining and reskilling to ease the strain of automation

The Industrial Revolution created a lot of middle-class jobs—with a big lag, a lot of pain and suffering, and a lot of urbanization to go along with it. The transition to the service economy left behind many people, who still feel stranded, because they thought of themselves as contributing productively in the manufacturing sector. But … Continue reading

Digital Skills in US – Upskilling fast in middle- and lower-level jobs

Look closely at the numbers in our new analysis of the “digitalization” of the labor market and you see that the greatest change is occurring not at the top of the skills distribution, but at the bottom and middle. Sure, the creation of many new jobs for highly skilled software developers and computer systems analysts … Continue reading

Upskilling Pathways in Europe – How will it work ?

Reading, writing, making simple calculations and using a computer: these are things we do every day, putting in practice our basic skills, mostly without even noticing. This is not straight forward for everyone though. For almost 70 million in Europe, such tasks can pose problems. Whether in employment, unemployed or economically inactive, the new “Upskilling … Continue reading

Discussion

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Jobs – Offres d’emploi – US & Canada (Eng. & Fr.)

The Most Popular Job Search Tools

Even More Objectives Statements to customize

Cover Letters – Tools, Tips and Free Cover Letter Templates for Microsoft Office

Follow Job Market Monitor on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Follow Job Market Monitor via Twitter

Categories

Archives

%d bloggers like this: