Europe

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Green, Digital and Competitive Index In Europe – The ranking

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) have never been more important. They count for 99% of European businesses and employ more than 100 million people. SMEs are essential to attaining the ambitious goals for growth, full employment and net-zero-carbon emissions in Europe. To track progress, the Lisbon Council has developed a unique three pillar indicator: The … Continue reading

Robots and Jobs in Europe – The effects are generally larger in countries with low or average levels of labour costs

The use of robots has multiplied during the last two decades. Between 2000 and 2017, robot exposure, as measured by the number of industrial robots per 1,000 workers, has quadrupled in Europe as a whole; and it has doubled in Germany, which deploys the highest number of robots per worker in Europe. In high-income countries, … Continue reading

NEETs in Europe – Recent policy developments

Increasing the participation of young people in the labour market has become an urgent policy goal and in recent times the focus has been directed at the ‘NEET’ group – young people ‘not in employment, education and training’. This report summarises the findings from 28 national reports by experts from the ‘European Restructuring Monitor’ (ERM) … Continue reading

Employment in Europe in 2021 – Lockdown transforms labour markets

The COVID-19 pandemic continued to be a defining force in the lives and work of Europeans for a second year in 2021, and Eurofound continued its work of examining and recording the many and diverse impacts across the EU Member States. Living and working in Europe 2021 provides a snapshot of the changes to employment, work and … Continue reading

Adult Learning in Europe – Those least likely to participate are also those most likely to agree that they lack general and technical skills to carry out their job at the required level

Strong belief in the value of learning and the pressing need for skills are not enough to motivate adults to participate in lifelong learning In 2019, Cedefop launched a pan-European opinion survey on adult learning and continuing vocational education and training (CVET). Demographic trends and technological change increase the need for adults to learn and … Continue reading

Low Participation of Adults in Training in Europe – 28% say that they lack technical skills and 23% say they lack general skills

In 2019, Cedefop launched a pan-European opinion survey on adult learning and continuing vocational education and training (CVET). The findings show that adults of all ages and across all occupations and qualifications recognise the need for new skills. This need, however, seems insufficient to motivate adults to participate in learning and CVET at the desired … Continue reading

Sustainability Competence Framework in Europe – The GreenComp

The development of a European sustainability competence framework is one of the policy actions set out in the European Green Deal as a catalyst to promote learning on environmental sustainability in the European Union. GreenComp identifies a set of sustainability competences to feed into education programmes to help learners develop knowledge, skills and attitudes that … Continue reading

Unemployment in Europe (December 2021) – At 7,0% in euro area, the lowest level since the official Eurostat statistics agency began compiling data in April 1998

In December 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.0%, down from 7.1% in November 2021 and from 8.2% in December 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 6.4% in December 2021, down from 6.5% in November 2021 and from 7.5% in December 2020. These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the … Continue reading

COVID-19 Lockdowns and Jobs in Europe – ‘Furloughed’ workers accounted for around two-thirds of the decline in hours worked at the height of the crisis

The [Coronavirus Disease 2019] COVID-19 pandemic closed or limited many economic activities in 2020, with far-reaching impacts on the labour market. Employment losses at the outset of the pandemic were sharper than those experienced during the global financial crisis. Even greater declines in hours worked arose as a result of the widespread state-supported furloughing of … Continue reading

Aging and Immigration in Europe – In addition to their integration into the labor force, the human capital of migrants is thus also a major determinant of their economic impact

This paper provides a systematic, multidimensional demographic analysis of the degree to which negative economic consequences of population aging can be mitigated by changes in migration and labor-force participation. Using a microsimulation population projection model accounting for 13 individual characteristics including education and immigration-related variables, we built scenarios of future changes in labor-force participation, migration … Continue reading

COVID and the Labour Market in Europe – Temporary workers were disproportionately affected

The COVID-19 pandemic closed or limited many economic activities in 2020, with far-reaching impacts on the labour market. Employment losses at the outset of the pandemic were sharper than those experienced during the global financial crisis. Even greater declines in hours worked arose as a result of the widespread state-supported furloughing of workers. The physical … Continue reading

COVID-19, Jobs, Skills and Immigration in Europe – Longer-term trends and challenges not fundamentally altered

The response to the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a historic economic recession with significant consequences for employment and, in turn, immigration and skills policy. While it remains to be seen how lasting the pandemic’s effects will be on the worst-hit sectors, such as hospitality, leisure, and tourism, the crisis appears to be entrenching existing … Continue reading

Upskilling and Reskilling Pathways In Europe – Empowering adults in three steps

This report is the second volume of Cedefop research on empowering adults through upskilling and reskilling pathways. It presents the Cedefop analytical framework for developing upskilling pathways for low-skilled adults and illustrates its conceptual development. The analytical framework is aimed at supporting policy-makers and stakeholders in designing and implementing sustainable, coordinated and coherent approaches to … Continue reading

Covid, Immigration and Labour Markets in Europe – Policymakers should take steps to clearly communicate the rationale behind labour migration policies

The response to the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a historic economic recession with significant consequences for employment and, in turn, immigration and skills policy. While it remains to be seen how lasting the pandemic’s effects will be on the worst-hit sectors, such as hospitality, leisure, and tourism, the crisis appears to be entrenching existing … Continue reading

Platform Work in Europe – 6 recommandations for future policy development

Policy Brief #3 focuses on the impacts of the digitalisation of work via platforms, sometimes called ‘platform work’ and delivered through a business model often referred to as ‘Uberisation’. Drawing on the existing evidence base, it outlines the opportunities and challenges of this work. It then summarises current policy thinking before recommending that future policy … Continue reading

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