Germany

This tag is associated with 171 posts

Unemployment Benefits for Long-Term Unemployed in Germany – The “Hartz IV” reform has created at least one million additional jobs research finds

About 15 years ago, Germany implemented the Hartz labor market reforms. Since then German unemployment has dropped substantially (see Figure 1). The most controversial reform step was the so-called “Hartz IV” reform that reduced unemployment benefits for long-term unemployed. While macroeconomists agree that Hartz IV has reduced unemployment, there is no agreement by how much. … Continue reading

Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMPs) in Germany – Increases the probability of taking jobs and of holding a high-quality job

Technological change, globalisation and the rise of knowledge intensive work are often associated with declining job quality. However, high job quality may have positive effects not only on the well-being and mental and physical health of individuals but also on society and the economy as a whole, leading to greater productivity, competitiveness and economic growth. … Continue reading

Unemployment Insurance in Germany – The impact of the Hartz reforms

A key question in labor market research is how the unemployment insurance system affects unemployment rates and labor market dynamics. A new IZA Discussion Paper by Benjamin Hartung, Philip Jung and Moritz Kuhn revisits this old question studying the German Hartz reforms. The study traces the German labor market miracle back to the reform of … Continue reading

Germany – How the future of work is tackled

Digital technologies could have a disruptive effect on future jobs, as well as on the tasks performed by workers and the skills required of them. There may be an even stronger demand for highly skilled workers, but the outlook for those in medium-skilled manufacturing who hold vocational training degrees is more unsure. This is seen … Continue reading

Skilled immigration in Germany – A leaked preliminary draft for a new immigration law

Germany is short of nurses, care workers, construction workers, carpenters, electricians, and IT specialists. And businesses have long been demanding that the government make it easier for skilled workers, including those from outside the European Union, to move to Germany — notwithstanding a political climate that has become toxic for many immigrants. German unemployment is currently … Continue reading

Immigrants in Germany – Obstacles are overcome only gradually and never fully

This paper provides an analysis of the labor market performance of immigrants in Germany. While immigrants make substantial contributions to the economy, this paper shows that they face more obstacles in the labor market than native workers, and that these obstacles are overcome only gradually and never fully. Some of the findings in this paper … Continue reading

Immigration in West Germany after the End of World War II – Farm and business owners and welfare spending were raised

How does immigration of poor people affect the lives of natives? This old policy question has recently gained extra attention in countries with large immigrant and refugee inflows. One recurring concern in the public debate is that generous welfare states attract low-skilled immigrants who supposedly benefit from public spending while contributing little in taxes. Consequently, … Continue reading

Education Gaps in Germany – Ignorance of economic returns and costs not the cause

The gap in university enrollment by parental education is large and persistent in many countries. In our representative survey, 74 percent of German university graduates, but only 36 percent of those without a university degree favor a university education for their children. The latter are more likely to underestimate returns and overestimate costs of university. … Continue reading

Reversing Decline in VET in UK – Lessons from Germany and France

[The] analysis suggests that there may be further lessons for [UK) from the German system and others from the French which would enable it to move rapidly to an effective and successful system. In particular: • France and Germany promote high standards of general education throughout school years for all pupils. Although this country’s reforms … Continue reading

Refugees in Northern Europe – Chances of finding work increase with each year of residence but plateau at a rate significantly below

Since the late 1970s, wealthy Northern European countries have been popular destinations for both humanitarian and labor migrants. The EU accession of formerly communist Eastern European countries in the early 2000s led to a substantial increase in labor migration toward Northern Europe. Overall, these migrants have found it reasonably easy to find work and are … Continue reading

Apprenticeship in Germany – A Dual or ‘Parallel Systems’ ?

On the macro level (federal level) and exo level (state or regional level), the German Dual Apprenticeship System shows a high degree of institutionalised collaboration. However, the companies and vocational schools on the meso level (institutional level and level of the actors), in contrast, are just loosely coupled with a dominant partner (i.e., companies) and … Continue reading

Labour Market Integration of Refugees and Asylum Seekers – An account of key information on Austria, Sweden and Germany

First session: “Opportunities for better labour market integration: Lessons from national experiences” During the session presentations of experiences from three Member States were delivered and discussed: Austria, Sweden and Germany. All the three countries are facing challenges of integrating refugees, even if the number of asylum applicants has substantially decreased since the peak year of … Continue reading

Apprenticeship in 8 Countries – Australia, Denmark, Egypt, England, Finland, Germany, India, and South Africa

This report presents the results of the analysis of apprenticeship in eight countries: Australia, Denmark, Egypt, England, Finland, Germany, India, and South Africa. The study used documentary analysis as its central methodological approach, citing, summarizing, synthesizing, analyzing and critically reflecting on existing literature and data produced by international organizations, government agencies, universities, and research institutions. … Continue reading

Income inequality in Germany – A rapid increase in the skill premium for young medium- skilled workers

The rise in inequality in many OECD countries over the last decades has triggered a rich body of academic work. Scholars agree in general that recent changes in inequality are mainly driven by inequality of labor incomes which in turn are closely related to skill premiums. In this paper, we ask whether skill-biased technological change … Continue reading

Dual Apprenticeship in Germany – The employment advantage of youth reverses over time and disappears around age 50

Vocationally-trained workers with relatively narrow skills face a harsher labor market with time as the nature of production changes. The employment advantage of German youth with vocational as compared to general education reverses over time and disappears around age 50, according to a study I conducted along with an international team. At that point, even … Continue reading

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