This tag is associated with 177 posts

Gender Gaps in Germany – Share of women rises most strongly in non-routine cognitive and manual occupations

The position of women in the labour market has been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny for a number of decades, especially in the context of the gender wage gap, but also with respect to relatively low female labour market participation. While the gender wage gap has substantially fallen over time in many industrialised … Continue reading

Refugee Health Professionals in Germany – Challenges and strategies in labour market integration

The global healthcare workforce is facing skilled labour shortage. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a global shortage of 14.5 million health professionals by 2030. The European Commission estimates a shortfall of 1 million health workers in Europe by 2020, and employment agencies in Germany predict a nationwide lack of health professionals. In order to address … Continue reading

Digital Skills in Online Job Ads in Germany – The share that required at least one digital skill rose from 38.1% in 2014 to 47.5% in 2018

Digitalization is becoming commonplace in the world of work. Of all the online job ads analyzed for the study, the share that required at least one digital skill rose from 38.1% in 2014 to 47.5% in 2018. In terms of the digital intensity of different types of jobs, the findings show that, in 2018, almost … Continue reading

National Skills Strategy in Germany – Ten objectives

In view of the challenges posed by structural and sectoral change in technical and economic terms, the German Federal Government has worked together with the social and economic partners, the Lander and the Federal Employment Agency, in consultation with academics and practitioners, to develop a National Skills Strategy (the Strategy) focusing on continuing vocational education … Continue reading

VET in Germany – A successful model

Vocational education and training (VET) in Germany is based on close cooperation between the State, companies and social partners. Germany’s VET is a successful model, largely based on the dual system (apprenticeship) leading to high-quality vocational qualifications, valued on the labour market. Apprenticeship enables smooth education-to-work transitions, resulting in low youth unemployment: in 2019, 5.8% … Continue reading

Continuous Vocational Training in Germany, 1970–2008 – Increased employment security, professional flexibility, and commitment to the employer

Human capital theory and the life-course perspective are used to investigate how economic modernisation, as well as developments in the labour market after the West German “economic miracle”, impacted employers’ supply of further education and training on the job, and employees’ increased participation in these arrangements. Additionally—controlling for the aforementioned structural change and economic cycles—it … Continue reading

Unemployment Benefits for Long-Term Unemployed in Germany – The “Hartz IV” reform has created at least one million additional jobs research finds

About 15 years ago, Germany implemented the Hartz labor market reforms. Since then German unemployment has dropped substantially (see Figure 1). The most controversial reform step was the so-called “Hartz IV” reform that reduced unemployment benefits for long-term unemployed. While macroeconomists agree that Hartz IV has reduced unemployment, there is no agreement by how much. … Continue reading

Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMPs) in Germany – Increases the probability of taking jobs and of holding a high-quality job

Technological change, globalisation and the rise of knowledge intensive work are often associated with declining job quality. However, high job quality may have positive effects not only on the well-being and mental and physical health of individuals but also on society and the economy as a whole, leading to greater productivity, competitiveness and economic growth. … Continue reading

Unemployment Insurance in Germany – The impact of the Hartz reforms

A key question in labor market research is how the unemployment insurance system affects unemployment rates and labor market dynamics. A new IZA Discussion Paper by Benjamin Hartung, Philip Jung and Moritz Kuhn revisits this old question studying the German Hartz reforms. The study traces the German labor market miracle back to the reform of … Continue reading

Germany – How the future of work is tackled

Digital technologies could have a disruptive effect on future jobs, as well as on the tasks performed by workers and the skills required of them. There may be an even stronger demand for highly skilled workers, but the outlook for those in medium-skilled manufacturing who hold vocational training degrees is more unsure. This is seen … Continue reading

Skilled immigration in Germany – A leaked preliminary draft for a new immigration law

Germany is short of nurses, care workers, construction workers, carpenters, electricians, and IT specialists. And businesses have long been demanding that the government make it easier for skilled workers, including those from outside the European Union, to move to Germany — notwithstanding a political climate that has become toxic for many immigrants. German unemployment is currently … Continue reading

Immigrants in Germany – Obstacles are overcome only gradually and never fully

This paper provides an analysis of the labor market performance of immigrants in Germany. While immigrants make substantial contributions to the economy, this paper shows that they face more obstacles in the labor market than native workers, and that these obstacles are overcome only gradually and never fully. Some of the findings in this paper … Continue reading

Immigration in West Germany after the End of World War II – Farm and business owners and welfare spending were raised

How does immigration of poor people affect the lives of natives? This old policy question has recently gained extra attention in countries with large immigrant and refugee inflows. One recurring concern in the public debate is that generous welfare states attract low-skilled immigrants who supposedly benefit from public spending while contributing little in taxes. Consequently, … Continue reading

Education Gaps in Germany – Ignorance of economic returns and costs not the cause

The gap in university enrollment by parental education is large and persistent in many countries. In our representative survey, 74 percent of German university graduates, but only 36 percent of those without a university degree favor a university education for their children. The latter are more likely to underestimate returns and overestimate costs of university. … Continue reading

Reversing Decline in VET in UK – Lessons from Germany and France

[The] analysis suggests that there may be further lessons for [UK) from the German system and others from the French which would enable it to move rapidly to an effective and successful system. In particular: • France and Germany promote high standards of general education throughout school years for all pupils. Although this country’s reforms … Continue reading

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