This study assesses job quality in Canada using an internationally inspired multidimensional framework that covers six broad aspects: income and benefits, career prospects, work intensity, working-time quality, skills and discretion, and social environment. The analysis uses the 2016 General Social Survey, which collected a rich set of information on working conditions in Canada.
A total of 23 indicators were constructed to capture the six job quality dimensions. Overall, the descriptive analysis reveals diverse patterns of job quality across sectors and socio-demographic groups. In particular, some of the largest labour market segments, such as hospitality and personal services, exhibit lower job quality features in multiple dimensions, especially in training opportunities, social environment as well as income and benefits. On the other hand, higher job quality features are evident in the finance and professional sector in terms of prospects, flexibility and autonomy. Public administration workers report higher job quality in nearly all dimensions. Results by socio-demographic group show that the concerns relating to the youth labour market involve more than just unemployment, and extend to many of the dimensions examined. And marked differences in job quality are apparent across levels of educational attainment and, to a lesser extent, gender.
The regression analysis performed in this study uses a novel latent class analysis model to identify which workers are more likely to have jobs associated with multiple good or bad job features. About 30% of all workers were predicted to hold a high-quality job associated with many good job features in all six quality dimensions, while 26% had a poor overall quality job that lacks many good features in most dimensions.
As for which observed characteristics affect the probability of being in a particular job quality profile, the results indicate that non-standard work arrangements are strong predictors of job quality classes: about one-third to one-half of workers in atypical contracts or part-time employment fell into the poorest job quality class, all else being equal. Moreover, firm size was positively associated with job quality, a result that suggests demand-side factors also play a role.
Chosen excerpts by Job Market Monitor. Read the whole story at The Daily — Study: Assessing Job Quality in Canada: A Multidimensional Approach