Academic Literature

Scholl to work transition : lessons from around the world

In a well documented paper, David Raffe, from University of Edinburgh, tells us that :

  • The processes and outcomes of education-work transitions vary across countries and these differences tend to persist over time
  • Institutional differences which create different national ‘logics’ largely explain these differences
  • System reactions to pressure and  theirs impacts vary.

His General findings

  • Where Education to Work transitions are linked to the Labour Market Outcome, transition is built-in. In those cases, Education to Work systems “channel, socialise and label young people in ways which match their Labour Market destinations, transitions are smoother, faster, more predictable and involve fewer job changes.”
  • The Education to Work transitions systems are in synergy with their educational, social, political and economic settings. “The values and assumptions underpinning institutions and policies are reflected in transition patterns and outcomes.
  • A qualifications framework does a lot in bringing Education to Work transitions systems in line with labour Market Outcomes. “A qualifications framework is an instrument for the development and classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for levels of learning achieved…. The scope of frameworks may be comprehensive of all learning achievement and pathways or may be confined to a particular sector…. Some frameworks may have more design elements and a tighter structure than others; some may have a legal basis whereas others represent a consensus of views of social partners. All qualifications frameworks, however, establish a basis for improving the quality, accessibility, linkages and public or labour market recognition of qualifications within a country and internationally.” (OECD 2007, cited by Raffer)

Hence, according to Raffer, introducing such a system requires:

  1. Time: for cultural change, to establish trust, learn language (need to manage expectations)
  2. Stakeholder involvement and partnership: to populate NQF, change institutional logics, ensure deep implementation
  3. Effective mechanisms for coordination
  4. Loose but variable design (typically using sub- frameworks to resolve tension between tightness and scope)
  5. A process of iterative alignment (of NQF and practice, intrinsic and institutional logics)
  6. Balance of development within sub-frameworks and integration across them
  7. Policy breadth (complementary policies/drivers to change institutional logics).

Full Article @

Cross-National  Differences in Education-Work Transition

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