Academic Literature

This category contains 326 posts

Why do we need workforce development programs, and what would it take to design an effective one?

This section discusses trends in U.S. labor markets that have widened the earnings gap between high- and low-skilled workers, and increased the need for programs that help low-wage workers gain skills and advance. Autor and others argue that we have seen the labor market “polarize” over the last few decades: technology has allowed companies to … Continue reading

Minimum Wage in US – Study claiming the minimum wage harmed low-wage workers fails conventional tests EPI says

Beginning in 2007, there were two major developments in the U.S. economy. The federal minimum wage rose in steps from $5.15 to $7.25 per hour, and overall employment growth slowed significantly as the country began its descent into the Great Recession. A recent paper by Jeffrey Clemens and Michael Wither argues that the national minimum … Continue reading

Disability – Recognizing that the experience of disability varies by type, severity, and duration for a more flexible and tailored approach to policy

In Europe, about one in eight people of working age report having a disability; that is, the presence of a long-term limiting health condition. Despite the introduction of a range of legislative and policy initiatives designed to eliminate discrimination and facilitate retention of and entry into work, disability is associated with substantial and enduring employment … Continue reading

Active labor market policies (ALMPs) – Evaluations have not shown these programs to be particularly effective research finds

Active labor market policies (ALMPs) are massively used to improve labor market outcomes of individuals out of work. Table 1 lists the percentage of Gross Domestic Product that is allocated toward ALMPs in various OECD countries in 2011 (see OECD 2013). In addition, it lists the fraction of the labor force enrolled in ALMP programs … Continue reading

An International Standard Classification of Skills and Competences ?

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard Classification of Skills and Competences to … Continue reading

Literacy and Numeracy skills of Teachers – On average, they score better but the scope for improvement varies between countries

Teachers are essential for the development of human capital in society. Their skills are formed in teacher training programs, but are also highly influenced by the type and overall quality of the students who enter these programs and become teachers. Understanding which segment of the population is part of the teacher corps is important in … Continue reading

Returns to Skills – Larger in countries with faster prior economic growth

The availability of new information about earnings and skills in a broader set of 32 countries permits closer investigation than previously possible of the hypothesis that education has a stronger payoff when there is faster economic change. It turns out that the range of differences in labor-market returns to skills across countries is even larger … Continue reading

Occupations with Overwork – Lowers the share of college educated young mothers

Despite large gains in the economic status of women over the past few decades, gender gaps in earnings, labor force participation and career advancement continue to persist in many developed countries (Blau 2012, Blau and Kahn, 2006). As women close the gap in human capital investments, gender differences in occupation and industry are emerging as … Continue reading

School-to-Work Transition in Europe – Considerable challenges persist despite intense reform activity

The Great Recession that has engulfed Europe since 2008 has had a profound impact on the process of young people’s school-to-work (STW) transition, exacerbating the challenges arising from the long-term structural transformations affecting youth labor markets across the European Union (EU). However, despite the impact of the crisis having been felt everywhere, profound cross-country differences … Continue reading

Informal On-the-job Training – Skill development appears to be larger than that of participation to training programmes

Due to lack of data on skill development, there is hardly any empirical literature on the contribution of different forms of human capital investments to workers’ skill development. In this paper, we provide more insights into the relevance of the assumption that the productivity of training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We … Continue reading

Vocational vs. General Education – An initial employment advantage of individuals with VE turns into a disadvantage later in life

Around the world, there is an increasing interest in expanded vocational education as a way to get youth quickly and effectively into the labor market by endowing them with occupation- specific skills. Earlier analysis of labor markets in the 1990s, however, suggested possible adverse impacts of vocational education on employment opportunities later in life due … Continue reading

Immigrants Over-qualification in Germany – More a problem of over-education and less of over-skilling

So far, only limited evidence exists on skill utilisation among immigrants beyond over- or under- education. Our study tries to ll this gap by exploiting recent data of the BIBB/BAuA Employ­ ment Survey 2012, which allow for observing both educational and skill mismatch among work­ ers with (all their) formal qualifications attained outside Germany. We … Continue reading

Youth Employment Programs around the World -Just more than one-third of evaluation results show a significant positive impact

The economic crisis that began in 2007 reversed the gradual declining trend in global youth unemployment rates observed between 2002 and 2007, changing the course of the trend to increasing youth unemployment between 2007 and 2010. This turn of events quickly led to discouragement and significant withdrawal from the labor force among young workers and … Continue reading

Boys Transitions into VET in Germany – They have better opportunities when entering company-based or dual education and training

This paper examines the transitions made by lower secondary school leavers and intermediate secondary school leavers into vocational education and training in Germany. With the basis that boys have long been underperforming girls in school, the paper investigates the question of whether male adolescents continue to be similarly disadvantaged when transitioning into vocational education and … Continue reading

Genes, education and labor market outcomes – What can genetic information teach us about the intergenerational transmission of economic inequality?

What can genetic information teach us about the intergenerational transmission of economic inequality? A new IZA Discussion Paper by Nicholas W. Papageorge (Johns Hopkins University & IZA) and Kevin Thom (New York University) uses molecular genetic data to better understand the economic returns to ability endowments over the life-cycle, and how they are influenced by … Continue reading

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