Academic Literature

This category contains 346 posts

The impact on employment and wages of Robots in US – No overall positive impact on any group

As robots and other computer-assisted technologies take over tasks previously performed by labour, there is increasing concern about the future of jobs and wages. This column discusses evidence that industrial robots reduced employment and wages between 1990 and 2007. Estimates suggest that an extra robot per 1,000 workers reduces the employment to population ratio by 0.18-0.34 … Continue reading

High-skilled workers four times more likely to emigrate

Contrary to public perception, the migrant share of the world population has not changed substantially since the 1960s, with roughly 3 percent currently living in a country different from their country of birth. Global migration patterns, however, have become increasingly asymmetric as high-skilled migration has become a greater force globally. The international distribution of talent … Continue reading

Recognition Of Migrants Skills, Knowledge And Competence – The ambivalence of competence recognition systems

An adequate incorporation of migrants in the labour market, able to fully unleash their potential, is a major challenge for EU development. In this direction, the recognition of migrants skills, knowledge and competence acquired in formal and non/informal contexts represents a crucial issue. Based on a comparative research work conducted at European level,  it considers both … Continue reading

Social Media – Does its use contributes to employability and sociality ?

The information age and proliferation of new media pose new questions and dilemmas. Research indicates that the proliferation of social media has widened a participation gap, also known as the digital divide, which affects mainly the low skilled and the low educated, because they are not media literate enough, to use digital information in an … Continue reading

Aging Workforce in US – A 10% increase in the fraction of the population ages 60+ decreases the growth rate of GDP per capita by 5.5% research finds

Population aging is widely assumed to have detrimental effects on economic growth yet there is little empirical evidence about the magnitude of its effects. This paper starts from the observation that many U.S. states have already experienced substantial growth in the size of their older population and much of this growth was predetermined by historical … Continue reading

Implementing Dual Apprenticeships – The main challenge they face is to make it attractive to both employers and students

The good economic performance and low levels of youth unemployment in countries with dual vocational education and training (VET) systems have provided good arguments to the advocates of dual apprenticeships as a global role model. Many governments in the Global North have started to show great interest in adopting dual apprenticeships in their own national … Continue reading

Mental Health – Illness account for half of all illness up to age 45 in rich countries

In a typical country, one in five people suffers from a mental illness, the great majority from depression or crippling anxiety. Mental illness accounts for half of all illness up to age 45 in rich countries, making it the most prevalent disease among working-age people; it also accounts for close to half of disability benefits … Continue reading

Canada – Individuals with lower levels of education save less for retirement

Using two new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to administrative tax records, this paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. First, using descriptive analysis, this study finds the following: Across groups of individuals based on their highest level … Continue reading

Around 40% of workers are mismatched by field, trained in a particular field, works in another field, research finds

Field-of-study mismatch occurs when a worker, trained in a particular field, works in another field. This study draws on the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) to explore how skill supply and labour market demand dynamics influence mismatch. It updates cross-national estimates on mismatch and estimates the mismatch wage penalty. Findings suggest that around 40% of … Continue reading

Cross-Country Labour Mobility in EU – Remains below what could be expected but has increased over time

Cross-country mobility flows in the EU are still much lower than those recorded in other highly integrated economic areas, notably the USA, and well below mobility within countries. The population of migrants from within the EU is also generally much lower than the population of migrants from outside the EU. Nevertheless, an upward trend in … Continue reading

Girls and STEM – They benefit from a higher proportion of girls in the classroom research finds, but not boys grade

The evidence presented in this paper suggests that a higher proportion of female students has positive effects on grades in STEM courses. Girls benefit from a higher proportion of girls in the classroom, or in other words, girls help girls. The size of the effects is however small. For boys, we find negative impacts on … Continue reading

The Machine Age – Policies to foster adult learning and ICT skills

A new technological epoch is underway – the so-called Machine Age – reflecting advances in artificial intelligence, digitalisation and Big Data. Some commentators have claimed that this epoch is different from previous ones in that it will produce large-scale technological unemployment, while others argue the contrary. Only time will judge who is right on this … Continue reading

Radicalization – Unemployed secondary educated people have the highest probability, followed by tertiary educated unemployed/underemployed research finds

Unemployed/underemployed educated individuals are more likely to support violent extremism with unemployed secondary educated people having the highest probability for radicalization followed by tertiary educated unemployed/underemployed. This paper represents a contribution to the literature on the relationship between economic development and radicalization or support for violent extremism. It uses survey data from eight Arab countries … Continue reading

Immigration in Canada – Prior host-country work experience as a criteria would improve integration

Recent changes to immigration selection policies favor skilled workers with prior work experience in the immigrant host country. Using unique administrative tax data for Canada, we estimate earnings equations to quantify the difference in earnings of immigrants with prior Canadian experience (prefilers) and those without prior experience (non-prefilers). We find that, relative to non-prefilers, entry … Continue reading

Robots and Jobs in Canada – 42 percent of the tasks can be automated report finds

For this report we used methodologies both from Oxford professors Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne and from management consulting firm McKinsey & Company, which have been employed in other jurisdictions, and applied them both to Canadian data for the first time. Read this report to help you: Understand the effects that automation can … Continue reading

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