Academic Literature

This category contains 471 posts

Aging – Likely a transitory phenomenon in high-income countries

Will the population of today’s high-income countries continue to age throughout the remainder of the century? We answer this question by combining two methodologies, Bayesian hierarchical probabilistic population forecasting and the use of prospective ages, which are chronological ages adjusted for changes in life expectancy. We distinguish two variants of measures of aging: those that … Continue reading

Global Aging – The trend towards higher levels of educational attainment may help to reduce economic dependency

When studying the economic consequences of changes in the age structure of the population, looking at economic dependency ratios provides us with some descriptive and intuitive initial insights. In this paper, we present two economic dependency ratios. The first ratio is based on economic activity status, and relates the number of dependent individuals to the … Continue reading

Education and Demography – The world population is likely to grow more slowly with United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (2015–2030)

This article is a discussion of the role of education in demography, and focuses specifically on efforts by Wolfgang Lutz and his team to add education as a fourth dimension to demographic projection models, after place, age, and sex. In this piece, I review a very important publication produced by the Wittgenstein Centre, World Population … Continue reading

Immigrant Entrepreneurs in US – A significantly stronger innovation performance

How do immigrants contribute to the U.S. economy? One relatively understudied dimension of immigrant activity is entrepreneurship. A recent IZA Discussion Paper by J. David Brown, John S. Earle, Mee Jung Kim, and Kyung Min Lee examines measures of innovation for firms owned by entrepreneurs who are foreign-born vs. U.S.-born. The data come from the … Continue reading

Emerging Occupations in Asia – Most new job titles are for highly-skilled positions that involve data and information and communication technology

This paper explores how technology affects labor market outcomes in Asia through the creation of new types of work. It investigates how workers’ characteristics can influence one’s chances of accessing emerging occupations—defined as occupation groups with new job titles. Comparisons of successive lists of the National Classification of Occupations in India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and … Continue reading

Skills Returns in UK – Increasing for analytical skills and significantly negative for physical skills study finds

We present estimates of changes in skills utilisation and in the returns to skills in the UK for 2002-2016 using new measures of skills derived from a systematic and detailed matching between the US O*NET system and UK SOC. Over the period, there is strongly increasing utilisation of both analytical skills and interpersonal skills, and … Continue reading

Unemployment Benefits for Long-Term Unemployed in Germany – The “Hartz IV” reform has created at least one million additional jobs research finds

About 15 years ago, Germany implemented the Hartz labor market reforms. Since then German unemployment has dropped substantially (see Figure 1). The most controversial reform step was the so-called “Hartz IV” reform that reduced unemployment benefits for long-term unemployed. While macroeconomists agree that Hartz IV has reduced unemployment, there is no agreement by how much. … Continue reading

Productivity and Skills – Sectoral skills explain more than school attainment

The key source of modern economic growth is productivity growth which is ultimately determined by technological progress. Innovation and technological progress are driven by people’s knowledge and skills which, in turn, are fostered by education and by research and development activities (R&D). Education – by equipping individuals with knowledge and skills – enables workers to … Continue reading

Gig-Jobs in US – The rise is driven by earnings that are secondary and supplemental sources of income

New institutions and technologies have made it simpler for self-employed individuals to do work for firms and peers that could have previously only been done in an employment relationship. As a result, speculation has grown that traditional jobs in the United States will be replaced by “gig” or “freelance” work performed by self-employed workers acting … Continue reading

Future of Work, Workforce Development and Community Colleges – They must continue to remain responsive to the unfolding needs of their communities

Postsecondary workforce development is one of the major innovations of the modern community college. In a workforce approach, curriculum is driven by the needs of local industry, course delivery systems are sufficiently flexible to meet the diverse needs of students and industry, and students experience a mixture of work-based and classroom learning. These features combine … Continue reading

Artificial Intelligence (AI) – It will challenge economists in coming years

After a number of AI-winters, AI is back with a boom. There are concerns that it will disrupt society. The immediate concern is whether labor can win a ‘race against the robots’ and the longer-term concern is whether an artificial general intelligence (super-intelligence) can be controlled. This paper describes the nature and context of these … Continue reading

Higher VET Earnings in UK – Early earnings differential associated with high-level vocational/technical education tends to disappear by the age of 30 study finds

Using rich administrative data for a full cohort of English secondary school leavers (2002/03 academic year), we compare earnings of people with higher vocational/technical qualifications to the earnings of degree holders at the age of 30, while controlling for prior attainment and background characteristics. We find that by the age of 30 the early earnings … Continue reading

Skills and Youth Labor Market Integration – Self-rated specific skills are more positively related to favorable labor market outcomes than self-rated generic skills

The transition from school to work is regarded as a precarious period for young people, as they often have to deal with periods of job searching, occupational mismatches and flexible contracts (Levels et al. 2014; Scherer 2005; Wolbers 2003). Education plays a decisive role in preparing youth for the labor market, and the provision of … Continue reading

Future of Work – The costs of reskilling and upskilling for occupational transitions

This work contributes to the “Jobs and Skills” module of the Going Digital horizontal project and to the Skills Outlook 2019 on Skills and Digitalisation. It results from the cooperation between the Directorate for Education and Skills (EDU) and the Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI). It proposes an experimental methodology and first time … Continue reading

Gender Gap in STEM – There is no gender gap in science and the definition of STEM used is an important determinant of the conclusions reached

While education levels of women have increased dramatically relative to men in recent decades, women are still greatly underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) college programmes and occupations. Card and Payne (2017) show that, in the U.S. and Canada, the gender gap in the likelihood of graduating with a STEM‐related degree explains about … Continue reading

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