Academic Literature

This category contains 416 posts

Gender Gap of Full-Time and Part-Time in UK – Working part-time after childbirth hold back women’s wages

Gender differences in rates of full-time and part-time paid work after childbirth are an important driver of differences in hourly wages between men and women. This is because they affect the amount and type of labour market experience that men and women build up, and this experience affects the hourly wage levels they can command. … Continue reading

Occupational Code – Classifying according to skills

In this work we propose a methodology for developing an occupational classification by applying Natural Language Processing methods, such as document clustering and distributed word representations, to UK online job adverts. The new occupational classification will be directly aligned with employer needs and group jobs into occupations based on similar skill requirements. Unlike the existing … Continue reading

Immigrants in Sweden – Not substitutes for Swedish workers research finds

We evaluate the relationship between immigrant and native employment using the Swedish administrative employer-employee linked LOUISE database. We find that if firms increase employment of immigrant workers by 10 percent, they increase employment of Swedish workers within the same occupation of the immigrants by 1.2-2.8 percent, and they increase employment of Swedish workers within other … Continue reading

Accreditation in UK – It enhances on-the-job training but only in private sector organisations

Britain has lagged behind the G7 countries in labour productivity in recent years. There is also an emerging concern about a potential post-Brexit skills deficit. Upskilling the existing workforce via on-the-job training may be a vital policy tool available. This paper empirically examines the upskilling impact of a UK government-backed accreditation scheme, Investors in People … Continue reading

Minimum Wages Impacts on Pay Gender Gap – A significant reduction in Ireland but not in UK

Women are disproportionately in low paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the change in the gender wage gap around the introduction of minimum wages in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Using survey data for … Continue reading

Immigration – Points-based admission is less effective than the employer sponsored program research finds

This paper has examined the causal relationship between earnings and high skilled migration inflows under two central selective policies: employer sponsored admission and the points- tested scheme. We attempted to isolate the endogeneity by instrumenting average local area worker earnings with time series variations in global commodity prices, interacting with cross-sectional variation in the commodity … Continue reading

Education Gaps in Germany – Ignorance of economic returns and costs not the cause

The gap in university enrollment by parental education is large and persistent in many countries. In our representative survey, 74 percent of German university graduates, but only 36 percent of those without a university degree favor a university education for their children. The latter are more likely to underestimate returns and overestimate costs of university. … Continue reading

Labour Force Participation Of Older Workers In Sweden – The recent rise

Between 1963 and 2000 the labor force participation rate among males in the age group 60–64 in Sweden fell from around 85 to 55 percentage points. However, since then, the labor force participation has started to rise again and is now above 75 percent in the age group. Although the long term development for female … Continue reading

Refugees and Jobs in Sweden – A relatively slow entry process and long-term outcomes below those of the average worker

Refugee immigration to Sweden has been sizeable for a long time and reached an all times high in 2015 in terms of the number of asylum seekers. The numbers of granted residence permits for refugees have also been high in later years and can be expected to increase in the next few years due to … Continue reading

Soft Skills Development in Europe – Different methodologies and approaches

Pushed by current socio-economic projections, a rising number of governments and international institutions are trying to bring closer the world of education and training and the world of work: graduates’ employability, innovation and entrepreneurship, ICT use in tertiary education, are just some of the topics on this agenda. The level of youth unemployment across the … Continue reading

Disability Benefits – A strong link going from parental social assistance participation to a child’s dependence on social assistance benefits

Disability benefits provide an essential safety net for many people of working age whose health prevents them from engaging in paid work. But many countries are increasingly concerned about the fiscal sustainability of high and growing disability insurance (DI) dependency rates. One of the reasons is that disability benefits may themselves contribute to low participation … Continue reading

Recessions in UK – Persistent scarring effects on employment and earnings

This paper estimates the effects of entering the labour market when the economy is weak on subsequent living standards using consistent long-running household survey data from the UK. In line with previous research, we find persistent scarring effects on employment and earnings. However, we also provide the first estimates of impacts on net household incomes … Continue reading

US – Employers have market power in many labor markets

Using data on the near-universe of online US job vacancies collected by Burning Glass Technologies in 2016, we calculate labor market concentration using the Herfindahl- Hirschman index (HHI) for each commuting zone by 6-digit SOC occupation. The average market has an HHI of 3,953, or the equivalent of 2.5 recruiting employers. 54% of labor markets … Continue reading

Immigrants and PIAAC – If you are not satisfied with your country’s performance, don’t blame them

The international survey of adult skills, PIAAC, records large differences in numeracy and literacy skills between immigrants and non-immigrants. We examine how these differences relate to the countries’ average skills and skill rankings. Immigrants are defined by country of birth or in terms of languages spoken. For almost all countries, the differences in average skills … Continue reading

Education – The private average global rate of return to one extra year of schooling is about 9 percent a year and very stable over decades

Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated systematically since the 1950s. The concept of the rate of return on investment in education is very similar to that for any other investment. It is a summary of the costs and benefits of the investment incurred at different points in time, … Continue reading

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