Academic Literature

This category contains 335 posts

The Machine Age – Policies to foster adult learning and ICT skills

A new technological epoch is underway – the so-called Machine Age – reflecting advances in artificial intelligence, digitalisation and Big Data. Some commentators have claimed that this epoch is different from previous ones in that it will produce large-scale technological unemployment, while others argue the contrary. Only time will judge who is right on this … Continue reading

Radicalization – Unemployed secondary educated people have the highest probability, followed by tertiary educated unemployed/underemployed research finds

Unemployed/underemployed educated individuals are more likely to support violent extremism with unemployed secondary educated people having the highest probability for radicalization followed by tertiary educated unemployed/underemployed. This paper represents a contribution to the literature on the relationship between economic development and radicalization or support for violent extremism. It uses survey data from eight Arab countries … Continue reading

Immigration in Canada – Prior host-country work experience as a criteria would improve integration

Recent changes to immigration selection policies favor skilled workers with prior work experience in the immigrant host country. Using unique administrative tax data for Canada, we estimate earnings equations to quantify the difference in earnings of immigrants with prior Canadian experience (prefilers) and those without prior experience (non-prefilers). We find that, relative to non-prefilers, entry … Continue reading

Robots and Jobs in Canada – 42 percent of the tasks can be automated report finds

For this report we used methodologies both from Oxford professors Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne and from management consulting firm McKinsey & Company, which have been employed in other jurisdictions, and applied them both to Canadian data for the first time. Read this report to help you: Understand the effects that automation can … Continue reading

Labor Market Information – Using online job-portal big data

Economists and other social scientists are increasingly using big data analytics to address longstanding economic questions and complement existing information sources. Big data produced by online platforms can yield a wealth of diverse, highly granular, multidimensional information with a variety of potential applications. This paper examines how online job-portal data can be used as a … Continue reading

Canada Europe Free Trade Agreement (CETA) – By 2023, a total of 227,000 jobs would be lost research finds

Proponents of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) emphasize its prospective economic benefits, with economic growth increasing due to rising trade volumes and investment. Widely cited official projections suggest modest GDP gains after about a decade, varying from between 0.003% and 0.08% in the European Union and between 0.03% and 0.76% in Canada. However, … Continue reading

Overeducation does not significantly affect people’s mental well-being, overskilling does

The labor market outcomes of education–occupation mismatches have been extensively studied during the last three decades. Overeducation, in which case workers have received more years of education than is required for their job, is prevalent and widespread in many countries. Studies generally find that overeducation has adverse consequences for labour market outcomes. Overeducated workers are … Continue reading

Employee Well-Being and Company Performance – The evidence

While evidence shows that better performing companies have happier employees, there has been much less research on whether happy employees contribute to better company performance. Finding causal relations between employee well-being and company performance is important for firms to justify spending corporate resources to provide a happier work environment for their employees. While correlational and … Continue reading

Globalization in Germany – A stabilizing effect on manufacturing jobs

Unlike in the case of the US, rising trade with emerging low-wage countries did not speed up the decline of manufacturing in Germany. Trade, in fact, slowed it down because the rising exports to these new markets worked to stabilize industry jobs, which might have otherwise been replaced by service jobs. A new IZA Discussion Paper by Wolfgang … Continue reading

Why do we need workforce development programs, and what would it take to design an effective one?

This section discusses trends in U.S. labor markets that have widened the earnings gap between high- and low-skilled workers, and increased the need for programs that help low-wage workers gain skills and advance. Autor and others argue that we have seen the labor market “polarize” over the last few decades: technology has allowed companies to … Continue reading

Minimum Wage in US – Study claiming the minimum wage harmed low-wage workers fails conventional tests EPI says

Beginning in 2007, there were two major developments in the U.S. economy. The federal minimum wage rose in steps from $5.15 to $7.25 per hour, and overall employment growth slowed significantly as the country began its descent into the Great Recession. A recent paper by Jeffrey Clemens and Michael Wither argues that the national minimum … Continue reading

Disability – Recognizing that the experience of disability varies by type, severity, and duration for a more flexible and tailored approach to policy

In Europe, about one in eight people of working age report having a disability; that is, the presence of a long-term limiting health condition. Despite the introduction of a range of legislative and policy initiatives designed to eliminate discrimination and facilitate retention of and entry into work, disability is associated with substantial and enduring employment … Continue reading

Active labor market policies (ALMPs) – Evaluations have not shown these programs to be particularly effective research finds

Active labor market policies (ALMPs) are massively used to improve labor market outcomes of individuals out of work. Table 1 lists the percentage of Gross Domestic Product that is allocated toward ALMPs in various OECD countries in 2011 (see OECD 2013). In addition, it lists the fraction of the labor force enrolled in ALMP programs … Continue reading

An International Standard Classification of Skills and Competences ?

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard Classification of Skills and Competences to … Continue reading

Literacy and Numeracy skills of Teachers – On average, they score better but the scope for improvement varies between countries

Teachers are essential for the development of human capital in society. Their skills are formed in teacher training programs, but are also highly influenced by the type and overall quality of the students who enter these programs and become teachers. Understanding which segment of the population is part of the teacher corps is important in … Continue reading

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