Academic Literature

This category contains 393 posts

The Gender Gap in STEM – The sex differences in academic strengths and pursuit of STEM degrees rise with increases in national gender equality

The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading (N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every … Continue reading

Boys, girls and Educational Choices – What about expected earnings ?

Girls frequently choose educational pathways that lead to lower-paid jobs and less prestigious careers, despite performing as well as boys at school. Almost everywhere in developed countries, girls and boys have equal access to education and appear equally free to choose their field of study. Nevertheless, educational choices are highly gendered, and the reasons behind … Continue reading

Apprenticeships in Norway – Schemes that can improve the chances of completing VET

Many countries with apprenticeship-based systems of VET face a shortage of apprenticeships. Some countries, including Denmark and Norway, address this supply-demand mismatch by offering alternative school-based routes to vocational qualifications for students not able to secure an apprenticeship. Other countries offer no alternative routes, but focus instead on pre-vocational education and training to prepare students … Continue reading

STEM in US – Skills that matter to regions

This article highlights research in The STEM Dilemma: Skills That Matter to Regions, which was recently published by the Upjohn Institute. The book looks at the regional workforce through the lens of the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) associated with regional occupations. This fine-grained approach uses data in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database to … Continue reading

Future of Work – Automation has not been employment-displacing but has reduced labor’s share in value added study finds

Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries. Comprehensive evidence on this labor-displacing channel is at present … Continue reading

Student Work during Secondary Education – Those who work during the summer holidays of secondary education are 15.3% more likely to have a job three months after leaving school

This study examines the direct and indirect impact (via educational achievement) of student work during secondary education on later employment outcomes. To this end, we jointly model student work and later schooling and employment outcomes as a chain of discrete choices. To tackle their endogeneity, we correct for these outcomes’ unobserved determinants. Using unique longitudinal … Continue reading

Apprenticeship in Germany – A Dual or ‘Parallel Systems’ ?

On the macro level (federal level) and exo level (state or regional level), the German Dual Apprenticeship System shows a high degree of institutionalised collaboration. However, the companies and vocational schools on the meso level (institutional level and level of the actors), in contrast, are just loosely coupled with a dominant partner (i.e., companies) and … Continue reading

Overeducation – The problem relates to the supply of educated labour exceeding demand coupled with an inflexible labour market

Overeducation describes the extent to which an individual possesses a level of education in excess of that which is required for their particular job. Overeducation is potentially costly to the economy, the firm and the individual. At a macroeconomic level, national welfare is potentially lower than would be the case if the skills of all … Continue reading

Labour Mobility in Canada – Social capital matters

Over the past five decades, the percentage of the working-age population migrating to other provinces has fallen from roughly 2% in the early 1970s to roughly 1% in 2015 (Chart 1). Part of the drop likely reflects the growing number of older workers in the labour force—such workers are less mobile than their younger counterparts. … Continue reading

Temporary Foreign Workers in Canada – The tendency to stay longer has increased among more recent arrivals

Temporary foreign workers (TFWs) have been playing a growing role in Canada’s labour force and immigration system. The length and type of stay of TFWs in Canada have strong implications for the country’s immigration and labour policies. This study assesses the distribution of temporary workers among possible post-arrival residential trajectories to determine which TFWs are … Continue reading

Jobs and Regional Demographics in Canada – A 5.0% decline in regional labour demand reduces the regional population aged 15 to 64 by 4.5% to 6.0%

This article in the Economic Insights series assesses the degree to which changes in labour demand affect the working-age population and the regional demographic dependency ratio, based on a range of administrative data and Statistics Canada’s population estimates. The results suggest that over periods of seven years, a 5.0% decline in regional labour demand reduces … Continue reading

Older Workers and Taxes in Canada – Changes in individuals’ tax rates associated with changes in the employment decisions of spouses

Amid an aging society and rising labour market participation rates among older Canadians, it is important to understand the factors affecting the employment decisions of older workers. Although there is a large research literature estimating the effects of income taxes on the labour supply decisions of young and middle-aged workers, the ways in which older … Continue reading

The Future of Work in the Automotive Sector – Deteriorating employment and working conditions.

This summary report on the future of work in the automotive sector focuses on the major changes facing the sector. These include: the rise of emerging economies, new mobilities, the “greening” of the product, and the digitalization of production. This is in order to identify the main challenges for employment and industrial relations and to … Continue reading

Older Workers in US – A strong willingness to work, especially in jobs with flexible schedules

Older Americans, even those who are long retired, have strong willingness to work, especially in jobs with flexible schedules. For many, labor force participation near or after normal retirement age is limited more by a lack of acceptable job opportunities or low expectations about finding them than by unwillingness to work longer. This paper establishes … Continue reading

Students Grants – Within 10 years, imputed taxes fully recoup total government expenditures research

We estimate the effect of grant aid on poor college students’ attainment and earnings using student-level administrative data from four-year public colleges in Texas. To identify these effects, we exploit a discontinuity in grant generosity as a function of family income. Eligibility for the maximum Pell Grant significantly increases degree receipt and earnings beginning four … Continue reading

Jobs – Offres d’emploi – US & Canada (Eng. & Fr.)

The Most Popular Job Search Tools

Even More Objectives Statements to customize

Cover Letters – Tools, Tips and Free Cover Letter Templates for Microsoft Office

Follow Job Market Monitor on

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Follow Job Market Monitor via Twitter