Academic Literature

This category contains 444 posts

Stereotypes and Biases – Do teachers change when they become aware of them ?

Stereotypes are over-generalized representations of characteristics of certain groups. They allow for easier and efficient processing of information, but they may cause biased judgment or even discrimination against particular groups. In addition, discrimination may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies by influencing the behavior of discriminated groups in the direction of the stereotypes. If individuals become aware … Continue reading

Working at Home – Telework increases stress study finds

Homeworking comes with pro and cons. While some describe as an ideal that combines family life and work, others depict it as chaotic and stressful – just imagine your cat sitting on the laptop, your baby crying on the ground, and your dog biting the shoes. According to a recent IZA discussion paper by Younghwan Song … Continue reading

Unemployment and Wage Growth in US – No sharp pickup in wage growth foreseen by FRBSF

The unemployment rate ended 2018 at just under 4%, substantially lower than most estimates of the natural rate. Could such an ostensibly tight labor market lead to a sharp pickup in wage growth from its recent moderate pace, such that the relationship between wage growth and unemployment is not always linear? Investigations using state-level data … Continue reading

Vocational vs General Education – Each country should aim to find the right balance

Vocational skills are job-specific skills that prepare for work in specific occupations. By contrast, the usage of general skills transcends specific occupations. In dynamically changing economies, this difference implies a basic trade-off between vocational and general education programs for labor-market experiences over the life-cycle. Vocational education programs have the advantage of helping young people master … Continue reading

Employment-to-Population Ratio in US – Why the decline ?

For several decades now, the employment rate among prime-age U.S adults has been falling. Less-educated males have experienced the largest drop in employment, but the troubling trends in participation are not limited to this group. Employment rates among women, which had been rising since the late 1960s, have stagnated and in some recent years declined. … Continue reading

Self-Esteem in Childhood and Occupational Achievements – Boys and Girls are different

This study investigates the impact of self-esteem during childhood on men’s and women’s occupational prestige in young adulthood. By combining first-hand information from parents in the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU) 2000 and their children in the Child-LNU in 2000 and the follow-up study in LNU-2010, we are able to assess how self-esteem during adolescence is … Continue reading

Wheelchair Users in Montreal and Quebec City – Disability reduces callback rates by employers by 50%

Despite wage subsidies and various other government programs that provide incentives for firms to hire workers with disabilities, this group is still disadvantaged in the labor market. An IZA discussion paper by Canadian researchers Charles Bellemare, Marion Goussé, Guy Lacroix and Steeve Marchand investigates the determinants and extent of labor market discrimination toward people with physical … Continue reading

The Impact of Automation on Inequality – Increasing it says St. Louis Fed’s study

We use estimates from Frey and Osborne (2017) of how likely automation is to affect occupations. They first identify the tasks of each occupation that may become automated: perception and manipulation tasks, creative intelligence tasks, and social intelligence tasks. Then they use a machine learning algorithm to calculate the probabilities of computerization. We merge their … Continue reading

The New Labor Market in US – Do the widely used measures undercount ?

The CPS and ATUS questions used to classify labor force status are similar, and both rely on the words “work” and “job.” Some researchers feel that these questions fail to resonate with gig workers and those in informal employment arrangements. They argue that, as a result, two widely used measures could be considerably undercounted—the total … Continue reading

Apprenticeship Training – Do firms benefit from it ?

The workforce strategy of firms is increasingly important for competitiveness and for producing at high quality and low costs. Firms must decide on the mix of skills and wages for current and future operations and on whether to train skilled workers or hire them from the open labour market. While traditional human capital theory states … Continue reading

Gender Pay Gap – Girls born in 2000 are aspiring to do jobs that are paid 31 percent lower than males research in UK finds

Girls born in 2000 are aspiring to do jobs that are paid 31 percent lower than males, according to a new IZA discussion paper by LSE researchers Warn N. Lekfuangfu and Grace Lordan. Boys born in 2000, on the other hand, have higher aspirations than previous male generations in terms of income, to the point … Continue reading

Training – It increases employees’ retention research finds

This paper analyses the effect of training participation on employees’ retention in the training company. It for the first time empirically combines the human capital and the monopsony theory by jointly controlling for the portability, visibility, and credibility of training. Based on an extensive German linked-employer-employee data set with detailed information on training history (WeLL-ADIAB), … Continue reading

Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) – Effective through an appropriate management and implementation

Since the 1990s, there has been a growing interest in ALMPs. Today, expenditure in ALMPs is sizeable in most advanced economies and continues to increase. Between 2004 and 2009, ALMP expenditure grew continuously at an average annual rate of 5.8%, reaching an accumulated growth of 32.5% and a total spending of US$176.5 billion (PPP) in … Continue reading

Youth Minimum Wage – It exerts a substantial negative impact on their employment rate

This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median wage (i.e., … Continue reading

Criminal Records an Job – Stay in longer

Researchers at Northwestern University investigated the possible relationship between having a criminal record and job performance by evaluating data from employees in sales or customer service jobs in call centers in the US. They found employees with a criminal record stayed in their roles on average 19 days longer than those who did not have … Continue reading

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