Academic Literature

This category contains 382 posts

Older Workers and Taxes in Canada – Changes in individuals’ tax rates associated with changes in the employment decisions of spouses

Amid an aging society and rising labour market participation rates among older Canadians, it is important to understand the factors affecting the employment decisions of older workers. Although there is a large research literature estimating the effects of income taxes on the labour supply decisions of young and middle-aged workers, the ways in which older … Continue reading

The Future of Work in the Automotive Sector – Deteriorating employment and working conditions.

This summary report on the future of work in the automotive sector focuses on the major changes facing the sector. These include: the rise of emerging economies, new mobilities, the “greening” of the product, and the digitalization of production. This is in order to identify the main challenges for employment and industrial relations and to … Continue reading

Older Workers in US – A strong willingness to work, especially in jobs with flexible schedules

Older Americans, even those who are long retired, have strong willingness to work, especially in jobs with flexible schedules. For many, labor force participation near or after normal retirement age is limited more by a lack of acceptable job opportunities or low expectations about finding them than by unwillingness to work longer. This paper establishes … Continue reading

Students Grants – Within 10 years, imputed taxes fully recoup total government expenditures research

We estimate the effect of grant aid on poor college students’ attainment and earnings using student-level administrative data from four-year public colleges in Texas. To identify these effects, we exploit a discontinuity in grant generosity as a function of family income. Eligibility for the maximum Pell Grant significantly increases degree receipt and earnings beginning four … Continue reading

Wages of New Hires in US – Stronger growth for women compared to men

There is substantial interest in measuring not just the quantity of new jobs but the quality as well. Existing surveys by the Bureau of Labor Statistics describe the number of new jobs created each month, as well as wages of incumbent workers, but not wages (or other characteristics) of newly created jobs. This paper aims … Continue reading

Canada – Chronic low income among immigrants increased from 15.8% in 2000 to 16.3% in 2004, but then declined to 12.3% by 2012

The study Chronic Low Income Among Immigrants in Canada and its Communities provides new evidence on the incidence of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older during the 2000s as well as variations across 29 Canadian cities and regions. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low-income cut-off for five or more consecutive … Continue reading

Aging – Japan’s recent experiences

As the third largest economy in the world and a precursor of global trends in population aging, Japan’s recent experiences provide important lessons regarding how demographic shifts affect the labor market and individuals’ economic well-being. On the whole, the labor market has shown a remarkable stability during the recent financial crisis, despite decades of economic … Continue reading

The Future of Work – Erica Groshen, former head of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics on

There is growing attention being paid to the future of work, and concern that changing work relationships—for example, independent contractors, contract agency workers, gig workers, app-based workers, etc.—are evolving faster than BLS can develop the tools to measure. How has BLS considered collecting data to document these forms of work? The main thing BLS has … Continue reading

Gender gap – Gender-stereotyping managers

In a recent IZA Discussion Paper by Aarhus University researchers Tor Eriksson, Nina Smith and Valdemar Smith use data from a survey conducted among managers to examine gender stereotypes and self-stereotyping. Based on a large field study of around 3,000 Danish managers at all levels (from CEOs to managers at low levels), the authors calculate … Continue reading

Labor Force Participation in US – Has fallen more in areas where relatively more opioid pain medication is prescribed

The labor force participation rate in the U.S. has declined since 2007 primarily because of population aging and ongoing trends that preceded the Great Recession. The participation rate has evolved differently, and for different reasons, across demographic groups. A rise in school enrollment has largely offset declining participation for young workers since the 1990s. The … Continue reading

General vs Vocational Education – Vocational training should not substitute for providing strong basic skills

Policy proposals promoting vocational education focus on the school-to-work transition. But with technological change, gains in youth employment may be offset by less adaptability and diminished employment later in life. To test for this trade-off, we employ a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different ages for people with general and vocational education. Using … Continue reading

Immigrants with University Education in Canada – A large earnings gap with their Canadian‑born counterparts, even in the long term

The number of international students pursuing education in countries with advanced economies has been rising rapidly over recent decades. International students are often regarded as an important group of young and well‑educated individuals from which to select permanent residents. However, a few studies from Australia, Canada and the United States have shown that the earnings … Continue reading

Home Ownership and Displaced Workers in Netherlands – Job losses result in longer commutes

As in many other countries, the Dutch owner-occupied housing market and labour market suffered from strong negative developments during the Great Recession that started in 2008. The large scale at which the transaction prices and home property values fell in the Dutch housing market is very rare — it previously occurred in the period 1978 … Continue reading

Precarious jobs in Canada – The Employment Precarity Index (EPI)

By the end of the 20th century, there was general agreement that, across the globe, labour markets were in transition and employment was becoming less secure. It was argued that the prevalence of secure full-time employment with benefits, known as the Standard Employment Relationship (SER), was in decline. Alternative forms of employment were growing, most of which were temporary … Continue reading

Integration of University-Educated Immigrants in Canada – Pre-landing Canadian work experience plays an increasing role

International students are increasingly regarded as an important group of young and well-educated individuals from which to select permanent residents. In December 2015 there were 353,000 international students with a valid study permit in Canada, up from 84,000 in December 1995. Of the international students admitted to Canada in the early 2000s, 25% became permanent … Continue reading

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