Academic Literature

This category contains 562 posts

Competences of Nurse Refugees Without Documentation – An Internationally Recognized Frameworks

Individuals seeking refuge in host countries is a global reality. Some of these individuals are qualified nurses. If, and when, the documents pertaining to a nurse qualification are not presented to the respective authorities of a host country, the challenges for these qualified nurses to secure registration and employment as nurses are numerous and often … Continue reading

15$ Federal Minimum Wage in US – Most Americans support it

About six-in-ten U.S. adults (62%) say they favor raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour, including 40% who strongly back the idea. About four-in-ten (38%) say they oppose the proposal, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted April 5-11. The Biden administration and many congressional Democrats favor increasing the federal minimum wage … Continue reading

Apprenticeship Levy in UK – A substantial shift away from lower-level apprenticeship starts to higher-level starts

The English apprenticeship system has experienced a series of major reforms in recent years, affecting apprenticeship length, quality, level and funding. In particular, the UK government has introduced an Apprenticeship Levy to help fund apprenticeship starts for large employers. Since April 2017, all employers with an annual pay bill of more than £3 million contribute … Continue reading

Immigration in New Zealand – No adverse wage impact on native workers of similar skill

The recent international literature on immigration wage effects has shown contrasting results. Past studies have focussed on the effect of low skilled immigrants on native-born workers in the US, and have yielded results ranging from no impact to negative impacts. This paper, by contrast, explores the outcomes of highly skilled immigration on the wages of … Continue reading

COVID and US Labor Markets in 2020 – Blacks and Hispanics have had slower employment recoveries than whites, even accounting for differences in education and occupation

It is no secret that in the spring of 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted U.S. labor markets more severely and more quickly than at any point in living memory. A blizzard of research papers, newspaper stories, and calls for economic relief have documented the severe crash in employment in the spring of 2020, and the disproportionate … Continue reading

Active Labour Market Policy (ALMP) – Reducing dispositional barriers to learning for groups that commonly report less proactive learning attitudes

Most active labour market policy (ALMP) research investigates potential socioeconomic consequences such as unemployment risks and earning potential but too often neglects potential cultural effects. When approaching ALMP research based on institutional and socialisation theory, researchers would expect that people internalise cultural and normative elements from their institutional environment. This study set out to investigate … Continue reading

Global Health Workforce in 2030 – A worldwide net shortage of 15 million health workers

In low- and middle-income countries, scaling essential health interventions to achieve health development targets is constrained by the lack of skilled health professionals to deliver services. Methods We take a labor market approach to project future health workforce demand based on an economic model based on projected economic growth, demographics, and health coverage, and using … Continue reading

Tertiary Vocational Education vs Academic Education – Does it beat it ?

This paper shows that young men who completed an apprenticeship education plus a tertiary vocational education have considerably higher earnings during the first half of their career than those who obtained an academic education in addition to their apprenticeship education. We match individuals who are as similar as possible during their formative first labour market … Continue reading

Covid and Unemployment in US – Broader measures of labor market underutilization

We know that tens of millions of people are currently out of work in the United States. More than 26 million workers filed for unemployment benefits between mid-March and mid-April alone. The most popular measure of the strength of the labor market is the unemployment rate. Forecasts for how much it will rise in the … Continue reading

VET or Academic Education and Labour Market Outcomes – Only at the upper secondary or post-secondary level does vocational education perform slightly better than academic education

Vocational education and training (VET) are highly valued by many. For instance, VET is expected to play an important role in achieving two Europe 2020 headline targets set in the education field: (a) reduce the rate of early school leavers from education to <10%; (b) increase the share of 30–40 years old having completed tertiary … Continue reading

Refugee Migrants in High-Income Countries – They experience persistently worse outcomes than other migrants

We provide an overview of the integration of refugees into the labor markets of a number of high-income countries. Discussing the ways in which refugees and economic migrants are differently selected and so might be expected to perform differently in a host country’s labor market, we examine employment and wages for these groups over time … Continue reading

Literacy Skills and Economic Performance In Canada – They have become an even more important determinant of economic growth

We pool expanded international data from the PIAAC survey of adult skills across Canadian provinces and other participating countries to replicate the IALS-based analysis by Coulombe, Tremblay and Marchand (2004) as well as Coulombe and Tremblay (2006) based on more recent and more comprehensive data on the literacy skills of the adult population. Our results … Continue reading

200 Years of Human Capital in Europe – Core-periphery structure was relatively time persistent for longer time periods

Human capital is today an important determinant of economic growth. However, evidence on its long-run regional development in Europe is still relatively limited. For this reason, this paper investigates the development of human capital in the European regions over the last 200 years. It indicates that “the long shadow of history” plays an important role … Continue reading

Finland – Immigrant job applicants with equivalent qualifications are treated differently

A large body of research conducted in various countries has highlighted discrimination for its role in depressing immigrants’ effective integration into the labour market (e.g. Carlsson, 2010; Drydakis and Vlassis, 2010; Fibbi et al., 2006; Heath and Cheung, 2007; Kaas and Manger, 2011; McGinnity and Lunn, 2011; Midtbøen, 2015; Weichselbaumer, 2015). Immigrants’ disadvantaged status has … Continue reading

Active Labour Market Programmes in UK and Denmark – Employer critical and consider programs unsuited to their needs

This report presents findings from a comparative mixed methods study of employer engagement in active labour market programmes (ALMPs) in the UK and Denmark. The report focuses on findings from 103 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews with employers and organisations delivering (ALMPs) (‘providers’) 3 in the UK 4 and Denmark.  Employers in both countries were … Continue reading

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