Academic Literature

This category contains 507 posts

Power Relations in VET – An inflated view of VET from the perspective of some stakeholders while industry particularly had a deflated view

The purpose of this study was to observe the perspectives of stakeholders on Vocational Education and Training (VET) policy in Australia. The intention was to explore the interplay of policy implementation, stakeholder perspectives on policy and VET activities, and theoretical notions of power relations, governmentality and capital, utilising frameworks by Foucault and Bourdieu. The problem, … Continue reading

Low-Achieving Adolescents – Improving the non-cognitive skills to increase earnings in the long-run

Designing programmes to help low achieving young people make successful school-to-work transitions is notoriously difficult. Whilst the positive effects of programmes targeted towards infants and young children are well-documented, there are doubts about the effectiveness of remediation programmes targeted towards adolescents . But few programmes targeting adolescents include long-term follow-ups, and therefore little is known … Continue reading

Grade Changes in College – Male students are more likely to receive favorable review research finds

Women and men differ across a variety of behaviors, including their tendency to negotiate. The difference in propensity to negotiate has been argued to contribute to the gender gap in the labor market. In a new IZA discussion paper, Cher Li and Basit Zafar study whether and why there are gender differences in grade changes … Continue reading

Economic Discrimination of Canadian Aboriginals – Research finds no evidence after controlling for their skill level and standard socio-demographic characteristics

The developing success of Indigenous populations in the Canadian labor market and their closer integration with the society has recently received increased attention from the government. In 2017 the Prime Minister of Canada announced the dissolution of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada and the creation of two new departments: Indigenous Services Canada and Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern … Continue reading

Digital Skills – Aligning teacher competence frameworks to 21st century challenges, the European Digital Competence Framework for Educators (Digcompedu)

Teachers need to update their competence profiles for 21st century challenges. Teaching strategies need to change and so do the competences teachers need to develop so as to empower 21st‐century learners. The European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu) represents a paradigmatic example of this endeavour, taking stock of these needs. Defining the … Continue reading

Future of Work – What are the prospects for improving the lot of US workers?

What are the prospects for improving the lot of US workers in the 21st century? This introduction to the topic examines the most important US labor market trends of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, considers their causes and likely future trends; and then explores policies that might improve these outcomes. The most important … Continue reading

Internships – More likely to be paid when local unemployment is low

We describe the demand for interns in the U.S. using ads from an internship-specific website. We find that internships are more likely to be paid when more closely associated with a specific occupation, when the local labor market has lower unemployment, and when the local and federal minimum wage are the same. A résumé audit … Continue reading

Continuous Vocational Training in Germany, 1970–2008 – Increased employment security, professional flexibility, and commitment to the employer

Human capital theory and the life-course perspective are used to investigate how economic modernisation, as well as developments in the labour market after the West German “economic miracle”, impacted employers’ supply of further education and training on the job, and employees’ increased participation in these arrangements. Additionally—controlling for the aforementioned structural change and economic cycles—it … Continue reading

Job Displacement in NZ – Workers with degrees suffer more financially when made unemployed

This research note extends previous research by Hyslop and Townsend (2017; 2019) on the longer term impacts of job displacement on workers labour market outcomes, to examine the impacts for workers with different levels of education. It uses data from the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE) to identify job displacements over the period … Continue reading

Wages Inequalities in Canada – 60% of the dispersion in individual employment earnings is accounted for by worker characteristics within firms, and the remaining 40% by firm characteristics

While the productivity gap between the top 10% of firms in the productivity distribution and other firms in the Canadian economy has increased since 2000, it has not resulted in a widening of the employment earnings distribution. The employment earnings gap between workers in the top and bottom ends of the earnings distribution has actually declined over … Continue reading

Immigrants and Wage Distribution in US – A one percentage point increase in the share of foreign-born leads to a 0.2–0.3 percent wage decrease in the bottom decile research finds

Since the early 1980s, the stock of immigrants to the US has been rapidly increasing and potentially disrupting labor markets across the country. Over the same period, the US wage distribution has experienced significant and uneven changes. Traditional economic models predict that foreign-born can affect relative wages so long, they alter the relative supplies of … Continue reading

Higher Education and Labour Market – Maths and English, attitudes towards HE formed by age 14 and parental advice and aspirations are determining pathways

In this paper, we evaluate the education-to-employment transitions of young people in the years immediately following the end of their compulsory schooling and as they enter the labour market for the first time. We construct their detailed post-school histories and examine their early labour market experiences, in order to address three main research questions: 1. … Continue reading

Over-education of Immigrants in Canada – A much higher likelihood of over-education than US peers

Canada and the United States are two major immigrant destinations with distinct immigration policies. The two countries also differ in immigration level and economy size, but their government structures, economic systems and social environment have many similarities. These similarities and differences provide a useful setting for comparative immigration research. This study assesses the degree of … Continue reading

Wage Increases and Labour Shortages in Sweden – How companies manage labour shortages

Nominal wage increases in Sweden have been unusually low in recent years, despite a strong outcome for the Swedish labour market. Several indicators point to demand for labour having exceeded supply, which according to the textbook should have led to higher wage growth. In this Commentary I show how survey- based indicators can have exaggerated … Continue reading

Effects of banning the Islamic veil in public schools in France – High school graduation rates improve for Muslim girls study finds

Immigration from Muslim countries is a source of tensions in many Western countries. Several countries have adopted regulations restricting religious expression and emphasizing the neutrality of the public sphere. A recent IZA discussion paper by Eric Maurin and Nicolas Navarrete explores the effect of one of the most emblematic of these regulations: the prohibition of … Continue reading

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