Academic Literature

This category contains 592 posts

Gender Gaps in Germany – Share of women rises most strongly in non-routine cognitive and manual occupations

The position of women in the labour market has been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny for a number of decades, especially in the context of the gender wage gap, but also with respect to relatively low female labour market participation. While the gender wage gap has substantially fallen over time in many industrialised … Continue reading

Employment Service in US – Evolution of the funding 1984-2008, a chart

Chosen excerpts by Job Market Monitor. Read the whole story @  “The Wagner-Peyser Act and U.S. Employment Service: 75 Years of Matchin” by Christopher J. O’Leary and Randall W. Eberts

Gender in STEM – Studying STEM in school and college may have less effect than expected due to the lower attachment of females to STEM after graduation

Much attention is focused on finding ways to encourage females to study STEM in school and college but what actually happens once women complete a STEM degree? We use the UK Quarterly Labour Force Survey to trace out gender differences in STEM persistence over the career. We find a continuous process whereby women are more … Continue reading

Innovation and Labor Markets – An economic framework to evaluate the impact

This paper develops an economic framework to evaluate the impact of a technological innovation on labor demand and inequality, decomposing the effects into five channels that are quantified using data that corporations routinely collect in their accounting and financial planning and analysis departments: (i) the direct channel captures how the innovation changes factor inputs for … Continue reading

Aging Baby Boomers in Canada – Their participation has surpassed earlier generations in their 60s

The large wave of baby boomers—individuals born between 1946 and 1965—accounted for 31% of the Canadian population in 2000, when they were in their prime ages of 35 to 54, and 24% of the total population in 2020, when they were older adults aged 55 to 74.1 Because of their sheer numbers, baby boomers have … Continue reading

Indian Diaspora – From ‘brain drain’ to ‘brain gain’

The Indian diaspora consists of low- and semi-skilled migrants mainly to the Middle-East; migration of the highly-skilled to developed countries; and cross-border students who seek employment and remain in their host countries. India initially viewed the migration of the best educated from its prestigious institutions as ‘brain drain’. However, with the reverse flow of these … Continue reading

Robots and Jobs in Europe – The effects are generally larger in countries with low or average levels of labour costs

The use of robots has multiplied during the last two decades. Between 2000 and 2017, robot exposure, as measured by the number of industrial robots per 1,000 workers, has quadrupled in Europe as a whole; and it has doubled in Germany, which deploys the highest number of robots per worker in Europe. In high-income countries, … Continue reading

College Grads in US – About 50 percent of recent college graduates are living and working in the metro area nearest the institution they attended

A principal aim of colleges is to equip students with knowledge, skills, and connections that will lead to labor market success and future wellbeing. A clear understanding of the labor markets in which a college operates stands to inform institution-level decision-making as well as broader questions about links between college-going and economic development, mobility, and … Continue reading

Future of Work – Is the workforce ready ?

For many newly emerging jobs, labour-market mismatches prevail as workers and firms are unable to apply precise occupation taxonomies and training lags behind workforce needs. We report on how data can enable useful foresight about skill requirements and training needs, even when that data has not been collected for this express purpose. First, we show … Continue reading

Human Capital – A new macroeconomic measure with of PISA and PIAAC

Despite its fundamental role in modern economic growth theory, empirical work has struggled to find a satisfactory representation of human capital to explain macroeconomic variables. Traditionally, empirical work has used quantity-based measures (such as mean years of schooling), although there has been increasing recognition of the need to incorporate a ‘quality’ dimension (often based on … Continue reading

Inflation and the Phillips Curve in US – Why the flatness ?

This paper studies the current state of inflation dynamics through the lens of the Phillips curve and assesses the degree of anchoring of inflation expectations. I first estimate a Phillips curve model with both past inflation and a constant anchor as explanatory variables over the 1999–2018 period for a variety of measures of consumer prices. … Continue reading

Labor Market Fluidity and Wage Growth – Differences in labor market fluidity account for half of the faster wage growth experienced by high fluidity economies

Job-to-job labor market flows vary substantially across countries. In Labor Market Fluidity and Human Capital Accumulation (NBER Working Paper 29698), Niklas Engbom finds that greater labor market fluidity — more frequent job changes per worker—is associated with greater human capital accumulation as workers acquire new skills. Greater fluidity also allows workers to find jobs where … Continue reading

AI skills – The demand rose dramatically over 2010–2019 in the U.S. economy

Using detailed data on skill requirements in online vacancies, we estimate the demand for AI specialists across occupations, sectors, and firms. We document a dramatic increase in the demand for AI skills over 2010–2019 in the U.S. economy across most industries and occupations. The demand is highest in IT occupations, followed by architecture and engineering, … Continue reading

Immigrants during Recessions in Canada – Entering the labour market during a recession may also result in “scarring” effects

The labour market outcomes of recently arrived immigrants are often more negatively affected during recessions than those of the Canadian born. Entering the labour market during a recession may also result in “scarring” effects for both immigrants and Canadian-born workers. But the severity and characteristics of recessions vary significantly and may affect the outcomes of … Continue reading

Refugee Health Professionals in Germany – Challenges and strategies in labour market integration

The global healthcare workforce is facing skilled labour shortage. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a global shortage of 14.5 million health professionals by 2030. The European Commission estimates a shortfall of 1 million health workers in Europe by 2020, and employment agencies in Germany predict a nationwide lack of health professionals. In order to address … Continue reading

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