Academic Literature

This category contains 357 posts

School-to-Work Transition in Italy – A sclerotic labor market and a very inefficient and disorganized educational system

This essay has examined the Italian SWTR, which is a typical example of the European Mediterranean one where the role of the State is marginal as compared to that of the family. The latter has to bear the cost of the extremely slow transition period young people undergo on their way from education to a … Continue reading

Overqualified Grads in US – 25 percent in 2015 based on a “good-fit jobs” approach

Recent studies have claimed that as many as 48 percent of college graduates are overqualified for the jobs they have, but this figure seems inconsistent with their comparatively higher earnings relative to earnings of workers without a college degree. To obtain that high mark, those studies classify many occupations that pay well as being a … Continue reading

Soft Skills – Policies aimed at reducing so-called “negative” non-cognitive or behavioral traits, however, could harm children in the long run

There is growing interest in how schools can shape children’s non-cognitive skills (sometimes known as behavioral traits, soft skills, or personality). One reason for this interest is that non-cognitive skills predict a wide range of economic outcomes, such as employment and lifetime earnings, but are also relatively malleable—at least until adulthood. This opens up a … Continue reading

Genetic score that predicts education is also associated with higher wages, but only among individuals with a college education

Economists generally accept that the skills rewarded in the labor market arise from a combination of endowed abilities, economic environments, and endogenous human capital in- vestments. Endowments, environments and investments almost certainly interact in compli- cated ways, transforming the distribution of abilities drawn at birth into a distribution of education, wages, and labor supply outcomes … Continue reading

Changes in the age structure of the workforce are significantly correlated with changes in aggregate productivity

This paper examines the relationship between workforce demographics and aggregate productivity. Changes in the age structure of the workforce is found to be significantly correlated with changes in aggregate productivity. Different demographic structures may be related to almost one quarter of the persistent productivity gap between the OECD and low income nations as well as … Continue reading

Gender Gap in Spain – Women still rank second in key areas of society related to employment

The goal of this study was to analyse the perceptions of Spanish women taking occupational training courses and of gender equality experts with respect to the relationship between initial formal education, occupational training, continuing education and employment, as well as the role played by the family in this relationship, in order to elucidate conceptions of … Continue reading

Refugees in Europe – Good education helps, but less than for native-born

This paper analyses the individual driving factors of refugees’ and family migrants’ labour market performance, using an ordinal logistic regression model. In a basic model, their employment rate is being regressed against the main socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, education), before a supplementary model includes other information (years of residence, language skills and information about parents) … Continue reading

Overeducation in Europe – Wide variations across countries and not rising rapidly over time in all countries

Overeducation is known to be costly to workers and it also has negative implications for firms and the wider macro economy. To date, the vast body of research in the area has focused on examining the incidence and impacts of overeducation within countries. This paper attempts to examine patterns in overeducation between countries using a … Continue reading

Over-Education in Canada – The effects on life satisfaction weaker in the immigrant population

The increased migration of skilled workers globally has led to a focus in the immigration literature on the economic costs of unsuccessful labour market integration. Less attention has been given to the consequences of employment difficulties, such as those related to over-education, on aspects of immigrants’ subjective well-being. Although a large proportion of immigrants experience … Continue reading

Gender Differences in Occupations in US – Risk aversion and attitudes toward competition, a clear scope for future

The differential sorting of men and women into different occupations could be an important channel through which gender wage differences are maintained. At the same time, the same factors that lead men and women to choose different occupations may also have a direct effect on the gender wage gap. Over the last decade, labor economists … Continue reading

International Students in Canada – Their average labour market outcomes lag behind their Canadian-born counterparts

In response to substantial provincial funding cuts through the 1990s combined with a declining postsecondary-aged domestic student population, Canada’s postsecondary institutions are increasingly tapping into the international student market for their tuition revenues. Complementing this increase, the Canadian government has in recent years made a number of important changes to its immigration policies easing the … Continue reading

The impact on employment and wages of Robots in US – No overall positive impact on any group

As robots and other computer-assisted technologies take over tasks previously performed by labour, there is increasing concern about the future of jobs and wages. This column discusses evidence that industrial robots reduced employment and wages between 1990 and 2007. Estimates suggest that an extra robot per 1,000 workers reduces the employment to population ratio by 0.18-0.34 … Continue reading

High-skilled workers four times more likely to emigrate

Contrary to public perception, the migrant share of the world population has not changed substantially since the 1960s, with roughly 3 percent currently living in a country different from their country of birth. Global migration patterns, however, have become increasingly asymmetric as high-skilled migration has become a greater force globally. The international distribution of talent … Continue reading

Recognition Of Migrants Skills, Knowledge And Competence – The ambivalence of competence recognition systems

An adequate incorporation of migrants in the labour market, able to fully unleash their potential, is a major challenge for EU development. In this direction, the recognition of migrants skills, knowledge and competence acquired in formal and non/informal contexts represents a crucial issue. Based on a comparative research work conducted at European level,  it considers both … Continue reading

Social Media – Does its use contributes to employability and sociality ?

The information age and proliferation of new media pose new questions and dilemmas. Research indicates that the proliferation of social media has widened a participation gap, also known as the digital divide, which affects mainly the low skilled and the low educated, because they are not media literate enough, to use digital information in an … Continue reading

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