Academic Literature

This category contains 225 posts

Older Workers Who Lost Their Jobs During The Great Recession In US – Stronger welfare policies would have helped their mental health research finds

The old cliché states, “Money doesn’t make you happy”, but is this really true? In new research, Carlos Riumallo-Herl finds that wealth had an insulating effect against depression for older workers who lost their jobs during the Great Recession in the U.S. He finds that in comparison to workers in the U.S., those in Europe … Continue reading

Job Search in US – It has changed in the aftermath of the Great Recession

The proportion of unemployed individuals who spent some time on an average day searching for a job increased from 20 percent to 24 percent after the recession. However, and perhaps surprisingly, among those unemployed who did search, the average time spent on job search looked very similar in the five years on either side of … Continue reading

US Workforce Investment Act (WIA) – Positive earnings and employment effects for the adult funding stream and mostly negative estimates for the dislocated worker stream research finds

Our examination of the impacts of receiving WIA training rather than solely core and/or intensive services in two anonymous states has yielded a wealth of important findings both substantive and methodological. We find differences in probabilities of training receipt as a function of race, age and education. Substantial unconditional differences by race largely, but not … Continue reading

Participation in US – Ongoing structural influences with some crowding out of job opportunities for young workers research finds

The evidence we present in this paper suggests that much of the steep decline in the labor force participation rate since 2007 owes to ongoing structural influences that are pushing down the participation rate rather than a pronounced cyclical weakness related to potential jobseekers’ discouragement about the weak state of the labor market – in … Continue reading

The Job Gap in US – 5.6 million jobs as of August 2014 finds The Hamilton Project

Each month, The Hamilton Project calculates America’s “jobs gap,” or the number of jobs that the U.S. economy needs to create in order to return to pre-recession employment levels while absorbing the people who newly enter the labor force each month. As of the end of August 2014, our nation faces a jobs gap of … Continue reading

Beveridge Curve “Shift” in US – There is no shift to begin with says Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Observers have followed the Beveridge curve during the recession and the recovery to glean some insight into potential structural changes in the labor market. Whether or not a shift implies an actual structural change—specifically, a decline in the matching efficiency of the labor market—is still debatable. However, one thing is clear: there is no shift … Continue reading

Employment Rate in Canada and the United States since the Last Recession – Both flat

The employment rate corresponds to the percentage of the working-age population that is employed. It allows the interpretation of employment growth in relation to population growth. Employment growth that is greater than population growth can be indicative of an improvement in the state of the labour market. The employment rate increases (decreases) when employment growth … Continue reading

Canada – Skills shortages have developed in certain fields and regions in recent years OECD finds

Skills shortages have developed in certain fields and regions in recent years. Earnings premiums for people in some professions, notably health, engineering and skilled trades have increased. And vacancy rates have risen for skilled trades, with the increase being particularly large in Alberta and Saskatchewan. While reforms have been implemented to strengthen adjustment so as … Continue reading

Polarization – The four middle skill occupations: 60 percent of employment in 1979, 46 percent in 2012

Cumulatively, these two trends of rapid employment growth in both high and low-­‐‑education jobs have substantially reduced the share of employment accounted for by ‘middle skill’ jobs. In 1979, the four middle skill occupations (sales, office and administrative workers, production workers, and operatives) accounted for 60 percent of employment. In 2007, this number was 49 … Continue reading

Participation in the US – The decline

Ageing and the workforce The largest single factor behind the decline is the ageing of the population. In order to understand how an ageing population affects overall labour force participation, it is helpful to look at the participation rates of different age groups. Figures 2 and 3 show the participation rate profiles for men and … Continue reading

Workplace Stress in US

Despite relative affluence, workplace stress is a prominent feature of the US labour market. To the extent that job stress causes poor health outcomes – either directly through increased blood pressure, fatigue, muscle pain, etc. or indirectly through increased rates of cigarette smoking – policy to lessen job stress may be appropriate. Focusing predominantly on … Continue reading

Inflation and Unemployment in US – The flattening of the Phillips curve

I’m thinking about the rest of us, starting at the top—with the Fed—who are struggling to figure out the nature of the tradeoff as the Fed begins to contemplate unwinding.  Given Chair Yellen’s (very appropriate) focus on job-market slack and thus her up-weighting of the full employment side of the mandate, there’s clearly some anxiety … Continue reading

US – The short-term unemployment rate has returned to its pre-recession average, so what ?

Because the short-term unemployment rate has returned to its pre-recession average, one important implication—if the hypothesis that the long-term unemployed are largely on the margins of the labor market is correct—is that further declines in short-term unemployment would be expected to be associated with rising inflation and stronger real wage growth. So has this trend … Continue reading

China – Unemployment and labour shortage co-exist

Why do labour shortage and high unemployment co-exist in China? I analysed this in my book. More specifically, I explored the matching efficiency in the labour market by estimating the matching function between job offers and job seekers in urban labour markets in China based on search and matching theory. Figure 3 shows the values … Continue reading

Involuntary Part-time Employment in US

As the economy continues its recovery from the Great Recession, we expect the number of those working part time for economic reasons to fall. However, it is probable that the ratio of PTER to unemployment will continue to increase as it has historically done. That is because, during the recoveries, the number of unemployed people … Continue reading

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