Academic Literature

This category contains 230 posts

35 years of unemployment benefits in US – Extended benefits unemployment rate by about one-third percentage point in the most recent recession

During the 2008-2009 recession, U.S. unemployment insurance (UI) benefits were extended to unprecedented levels, with UI duration increasing from 26 weeks—the regular duration—to as much as 99 weeks in some states, prompting a lively debate in policy and academic circles about the adverse effects of such extensions on the search behavior of job seekers and … Continue reading

Hours of Work in US – 32% Work 45 or more hours compared with 18% in Germany, and 4% in France

American employees put in longer workweeks than Europeans. They are also more likely to work at undesirable times, such as nights and weekends. This column argues that the phenomena of long hours and strange hours are related. One possibility for this is cultural – Americans simply enjoy working at strange times. Another, more probable explanation, … Continue reading

Participation in US – Much, but not all, of the decline since 2007 is structural says FED research

Since 2007, the labor force participation rate has fallen from about 66 percent to about 63 percent. The sources of this decline have been widely debated among academics and policymakers, with some arguing that the participation rate is depressed due to weak labor demand while others argue that the decline was inevitable due to structural … Continue reading

CEOs to Unskilled Workers Pay Ratio – Double what you think is ideal research finds

In their recent research, scheduled to be published in a forthcoming issue Perspectives on Psychological Science, Chulalongkorn University’s Sorapop Kiatpongsan and Harvard Business School’s Michael Norton investigate “what size gaps people desire” and whether those gaps are at all consistent among people from different countries and backgrounds. It turns out that most people, regardless of nationality or … Continue reading

US – Job Openings Outpace Hires writes Dallas Fed

In addition to employment and unemployment figures, data on the efficiency of the labor market offer more clues to its health. One way to determine this is to examine the degree of labor mismatch occurring. The classic illustration demonstrating mismatch is the Beveridge curve, which shows an intuitive relationship between the rate of job vacancies … Continue reading

Older Workers Who Lost Their Jobs During The Great Recession In US – Stronger welfare policies would have helped their mental health research finds

The old cliché states, “Money doesn’t make you happy”, but is this really true? In new research, Carlos Riumallo-Herl finds that wealth had an insulating effect against depression for older workers who lost their jobs during the Great Recession in the U.S. He finds that in comparison to workers in the U.S., those in Europe … Continue reading

Job Search in US – It has changed in the aftermath of the Great Recession

The proportion of unemployed individuals who spent some time on an average day searching for a job increased from 20 percent to 24 percent after the recession. However, and perhaps surprisingly, among those unemployed who did search, the average time spent on job search looked very similar in the five years on either side of … Continue reading

US Workforce Investment Act (WIA) – Positive earnings and employment effects for the adult funding stream and mostly negative estimates for the dislocated worker stream research finds

Our examination of the impacts of receiving WIA training rather than solely core and/or intensive services in two anonymous states has yielded a wealth of important findings both substantive and methodological. We find differences in probabilities of training receipt as a function of race, age and education. Substantial unconditional differences by race largely, but not … Continue reading

Participation in US – Ongoing structural influences with some crowding out of job opportunities for young workers research finds

The evidence we present in this paper suggests that much of the steep decline in the labor force participation rate since 2007 owes to ongoing structural influences that are pushing down the participation rate rather than a pronounced cyclical weakness related to potential jobseekers’ discouragement about the weak state of the labor market – in … Continue reading

The Job Gap in US – 5.6 million jobs as of August 2014 finds The Hamilton Project

Each month, The Hamilton Project calculates America’s “jobs gap,” or the number of jobs that the U.S. economy needs to create in order to return to pre-recession employment levels while absorbing the people who newly enter the labor force each month. As of the end of August 2014, our nation faces a jobs gap of … Continue reading

Beveridge Curve “Shift” in US – There is no shift to begin with says Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Observers have followed the Beveridge curve during the recession and the recovery to glean some insight into potential structural changes in the labor market. Whether or not a shift implies an actual structural change—specifically, a decline in the matching efficiency of the labor market—is still debatable. However, one thing is clear: there is no shift … Continue reading

Employment Rate in Canada and the United States since the Last Recession – Both flat

The employment rate corresponds to the percentage of the working-age population that is employed. It allows the interpretation of employment growth in relation to population growth. Employment growth that is greater than population growth can be indicative of an improvement in the state of the labour market. The employment rate increases (decreases) when employment growth … Continue reading

Canada – Skills shortages have developed in certain fields and regions in recent years OECD finds

Skills shortages have developed in certain fields and regions in recent years. Earnings premiums for people in some professions, notably health, engineering and skilled trades have increased. And vacancy rates have risen for skilled trades, with the increase being particularly large in Alberta and Saskatchewan. While reforms have been implemented to strengthen adjustment so as … Continue reading

Polarization – The four middle skill occupations: 60 percent of employment in 1979, 46 percent in 2012

Cumulatively, these two trends of rapid employment growth in both high and low-­‐‑education jobs have substantially reduced the share of employment accounted for by ‘middle skill’ jobs. In 1979, the four middle skill occupations (sales, office and administrative workers, production workers, and operatives) accounted for 60 percent of employment. In 2007, this number was 49 … Continue reading

Participation in the US – The decline

Ageing and the workforce The largest single factor behind the decline is the ageing of the population. In order to understand how an ageing population affects overall labour force participation, it is helpful to look at the participation rates of different age groups. Figures 2 and 3 show the participation rate profiles for men and … Continue reading

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