Academic Literature

This category contains 249 posts

US – Workers were less secure about retaining their jobs in 2010 and 2012 than in 1977 and 1978 BLS finds

Workers were less secure about retaining their jobs in 2010 and 2012 than in 1977 and 1978; they also were less secure about the ease with which they would find a comparable job if they were separated. As might be expected, the two measures of job security track unemployment, although other factors certainly play a … Continue reading

Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) – The 2015 revisions

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) provides estimates of employment and unemployment, which are among the most timely and important measures of performance of the Canadian economy. With the release of the survey results only 10 days after the completion of data collection, the LFS estimates are the first of the major monthly economic data series to be … Continue reading

Unemployment Insurance in US – Cut in benefit duration accounted for about 61 percent of the aggregate employment growth in 2014 NBER’s study finds

Our objective in this paper is to assess the effect of unemployment benefit extensions on employment. Measuring the magnitude of this effect is manifestly important for understanding the economic consequences of this widely used policy instrument. Yet, the existing literature provides little information on the size, let alone the sign of this effect. In the … Continue reading

$15 minimum Wage in US – The cost increases resulting from these measures could be absorbed by the fast-food industry not only without causing employment losses study finds

Over the past few years, there has been a growing movement in the United States to substantially raise the federal minimum wage, which has been fixed at $7.25 per hour since 2009. One widely embraced goal within this movement is to raise the federal minimum to $15 an hour. This would constitute a 107 percent … Continue reading

Skills Gap in US – Skill shortages are not a significant factor impeding current employment growth research finds

Consistent with the view that much of current unemployment must be structural rather than cyclical in nature, even as unemployment has been slow to fall from its recent high level, a number of reports have cited short- ages of skilled workers as a significant barrier to business expansion. A 2011 report by Deloitte and the … Continue reading

Education in US – The earning gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree Federal Reserve Bank San Francisco finds

The earnings gap between people with a college degree and those with no education beyond high school has been growing since the late 1970s. Since 2000, however, the gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree as well. The divergence between workers with college degrees and those with graduate degrees may … Continue reading

US – Unemployed job losers have low rates of transition out of the labor force until their duration of unemployment ends FRB finds

Economists often expect unemployment insurance (UI) benefits to elevate unemployment rates because recipients may choose to remain unemployed—instead of accepting jobs or dropping out of the labor force—in order to continue receiving benefits. Researchers have attempted to quantify the effect of UI benefit availability on the unemployed ranks and on the U.S. unemployment rate. The … Continue reading

Highly-Skilled Migration in US – LinkedIn data show a decrease, from 2000 to 2012, in the percentage of professional migrants, worldwide

There is a large body of literature, mainly in the disciplines of sociology, demography, economics, and geography, about international migration, and, more specifically, highly-skilled migration. It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss theories of migration and the rich and healthy debate about them. With this article we emphasize an outstanding problem in … Continue reading

Finding a Job in US – A marked improvement in the full-time finding rate over the last year Atlanta FED finds

if you were an unemployed prime-age individual (25–54 years old) or working PTER one year ago, what are you doing today? Have your chances of becoming employed full-time improved? Chart 1 shows the distribution of labor market outcomes of prime-age workers who were PTER one year earlier. Chart 2 shows the distribution of outcomes for … Continue reading

STEM in Italy – Increased access to higher education failed to raise incomes research finds

Governments sometimes promote reforms that increase access to education for a large share of the population. These reforms may lower the returns to education by altering returns to skills, education quality, and peer effects. This column examines a 1961 Italian reform that increased enrolment in university STEM majors among students who had previously been denied … Continue reading

US – The trend employment-to-population ratio has been falling for over a decade Chicago Fed finds

The labor force participation (LFP) rate—the share of the working-age population that is either employed or jobless and actively looking for employment—has fallen from 66 percent at the beginning of the Great Recession in December 2007 to 62.7 percent in September 2014.1 To some, this decline suggests the possibility that there may be labor market … Continue reading

Population aging could have effects that are positive study says

In this paper, we addressed the important question of how selected areas of life will be affected as populations grow older and smaller. We used the case of Germany, a country that is at a relatively advanced stage of the demographic transition, to study the potential long-run implications of population aging. In the decades prior … Continue reading

Canada – Cumulative earnings varied considerably—both across and within fields of study StatCan finds

A new study that followed men and women over two decades found that . Using longitudinal tax data linked to 1991 Census data, the study tracked individuals from 1991, when they were 26 to 35 years old, to 2010, when they were 45 to 54 years old. Individuals were grouped according to their highest level of completed education and major field of study reported in 1991. The labour … Continue reading

China – An increase in the minimum wage leads to a small decline in employment research finds

Our study is the first to use data on minimum wage changes for over 2400 counties in China. We combine the information on minimum wages changes with employment data from the Annual Survey of Industrial Firms, which covers over 70 percent of China’s manufacturing employment. While China instituted a minimum wage system in 1994, enforcement … Continue reading

Monetary policy and inequality in the US – The links

Possible channels linking monetary policy and inequality  Proponents of this view focus on two channels through which monetary policy affects inequality. Heterogeneity in income sources While most households rely predominantly on labour incomes, for others financial income, business income, or transfers may be more important. If expansionary policy raises profits by more than wages, wealth … Continue reading

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