Academic Literature

This category contains 279 posts

Canada – Employer sponsorship and other forms of automatic saving may matter a great deal in helping more vulnerable groups save for their retirement.

A large literature in behavioural economics finds that households benefit from assistance with the challenging task of preparing financially for retirement. Workplace pension program characteristics such as default options or savings rate escalators tend to significantly increase contributions to these plans (Madrian and Shea 2001; Choi et al. 2004; Thaler and Benartzi 2004). Recent evidence … Continue reading

College Grads Underemployement in US – Lower for those with technically oriented and occupation-specific majors research finds

The image of a young newly minted college graduate working behind the counter of a hip coffee shop has become a hallmark of the plight of college graduates following the Great Recession. Indeed, although economic conditions steadily improved through the recovery, significant slack remained in the labor market, and many recent graduates were not finding jobs … Continue reading

Long-Term Impact of Mass Layoffs – As layoffs increase by 1%, total labour force shrinks by 0.15 percentage points

When 1% of a county’s labour force is laid off, the county’s total labour force shrinks by 0.15 percentage points within three years. Between 2001 and 2011, internal migration, take-up of disability insurance, and early retirement account for three-quarters of the decline in the labour force following a significant economic downturn, with internal migration accounting … Continue reading

Grads in Canada – Earnings increased for male in Engineering and for female Earnings increased for male postsecondary graduates in Engineering and for female in Health

In 2005, Canadian-born male and female bachelor’s degree holders aged 25 to 34 earned on average $65,400 and $46,500 (in 2012 dollars) in wages and salaries, respectively. This was more than $20,000 higher than the earnings received by their counterparts with only a high school diploma (Table 1 and Charts 1 and 2).Note 4 While … Continue reading

Grads in Canada – The impact of further studies

By field of study, the largest difference in the employment rate for university degree-holders who completed further studies compared with those who did not was 8.2 percentage points for those who first studied physical and life sciences and technologies (78.1% versus 69.9%). The second-largest difference was 6.7 percentage points for people who had a university degree in social and behavioural … Continue reading

Workplace Bullying – Consistently associated with reduced mental health a meta-analysis finds

Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. Based on a large pool of cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we conclude that workplace bullying is a significant predictor for subsequent mental health problems, including depressive-, anxiety-, and PTSD symptoms and other stress-related psychological complaints. By showing that mental health complaints … Continue reading

Immigrants in Canada – Language at landing is one of the most important variables in predicting earnings in the short term, but less as time past

While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants’ characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated … Continue reading

US – The rightward shift in the Beveridge curve

One feature of how the labor market looks different from before the Great Recession is captured in the Beveridge curve relationship, as shown here (vacancy rate vs. unemployment rate): We’re interested in the Beveridge curve, in part because the relationship falls out of conventional Mortensen-Pissarides search models of the labor market. In that model, we … Continue reading

Resume – Job history as a signal of worker characteristics

Consider two workers who are known to be identical in almost every professionally relevant characteristic, such as education, experience and vocational training. The only relevant characteristic in which they may differ is how well each worker gets along with others and cooperates with directives from supervisors. As an employer, you care about these qualities, but … Continue reading

Unemployment benefits has a positive effect on the quality of jobs that recipients find research says

The generosity of unemployment insurance is often cited as a reason for long spells of joblessness. But this view neglects other important, and potentially positive, economic aspects of such programmes. Using Austrian data, this column presents evidence that unemployment insurance has a positive effect on the quality of jobs that recipients find. This can in … Continue reading

Google Targeted Ads and the Gender Gap – High paying jobs shown to man more than women research finds

Using AdFisher, we conducted 21 experiments using 17,370 agents that collected over 600,000 ads. Our experiments found instances of discrimination, opacity, and choice in targeted ads of Google. Discrimination, is at some level, inherent to profiling: the point of profiling is to treat some people differently. While customization can be helpful, we highlight a case … Continue reading

Low Wages in US – Raises would boost overall productivity growth, with likely minimal effect on employment

As the United States emerges from the Great Recession, concern is rising nationally over the issues of income inequality, stagnation of workers’ wages, and especially the struggles of lower-skilled workers at the -bottom end of the wage scale. While Washington deliberates legislation raising the minimum wage, a number of major American employers—for example, Aetna and … Continue reading

Canada – Labour productivity of a firm engaging in offshoring was 6.8% higher StatCan finds

Offshoring refers to the sourcing of intermediate inputs for domestic production abroad. Specifically, in this paper, offshoring refers to goods imported directly by manufacturers, including both intra- and inter-firm transactions across international borders. Excluded, because of data limitations, are goods imported through intermediaries as well as services.  Firms engaging in offshoring are found to be … Continue reading

US – Import competition from China reduces manufacturing employment St-Louis Fed finds

In theory, trade is good. In practice, considerable debate exists on whether importing foreign goods has an adverse effect on the domestic economy (and on the labor market in particular). The impact of this effect depends on whether foreign goods compete with or complement local production.  For example, if imported computers can easily substitute for … Continue reading

Employment Growth Rates in Canada – Most firms exhibit little organic growth StatCan finds

Studies on job growth typically seek answers to questions such as: What is the source of the growth of jobs? Does job growth lie predominantly in small, large, young or old firms? Where is job growth strongest? Where is it most volatile? An earlier Statistics Canada study, published in The Daily on July 5, 2012, showed that … Continue reading

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